Chile

Introduction:

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Pinochet, including missiles, radars, small arms, as well as aircrafts, naval vessels and cluster bombs. Today Israel continues to export security and military products and services to Chile.

There is evidence that Israel were and are used in the repression and human rights violations of Chilean people. done by the Chilean army and police.

Israel - Chile Relations:

Chile recognized the state of Israel in 1949, and there have been more than 50 diplomatic visits between the two countries since that time.[1] 

The trading relationship is strong, totaling $223 million in 2016 ($137.3 million imports, $85.9 million in exports).[2]

Military relations:

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, becoming its main supplier in 1976 after the US administration suspended all military aid.[3] This included missiles, radars, light weapons, as well as air and naval vessels and cluster bombs technology.[4] [5]

There is evidence that Israel weapons were used in the repression and human rights violation of the Chilean people done by the Chilean military during and after the Pinochet regime.[6]

Israel helped support the development of the aeronautical industry [7] and there are strong links between the Navies and Air Force of the two countries.[8] [9]

Arms purchases decelerated considerably with the end of the military government in 1989 but did not stop completely, and were reactivated in 2000. Chile’s purchases from private Israeli companies include special anti-riot vehicles equipped with water cannon systems designed for inmate control in prisons from Beit Alfa Technologies[10], and Skystars (aerostats) from RT Aerostats Systems.[11] Chile also purchased the patent for the Galil Ace rifle from IWI, produced today in Chile and intended for the Chilean military.[12]

In 2012 Chile purchased an national alert system from the Israeli company Evigilo. the system was developed with and for the Israeli army and was used by the Israeli Army Home Front Command during operations in Gaza.[13]

In 2013 the Chilean army bought mini drones for espionage for $3 million dollars. These drones are produced by BlueBird Aero Systems, and are known as SpyLite.[14]

In 2018, the Israeli and Chilean armies signed new cooperation initiatives in military education and training, leadership command and training methods. The agreement was signed in Chile by Israeli Major General Yaacov Barak and Chilean General Ricardo Martinez. During the visit, Barak toured with the Lautaro Special Operations Brigade. The former commander of the Lautaro Brigade, Javier Iturriaga, was appointed Head of National Defence by Piñera as the government imposed a state of emergency to counter the nationwide protests in Chile.[15]

Israel have a defense attaché in Santiago de Chile that is in charge of Chile, Argentina, Ecuador and Paraguay.[16] Chile, too, has military attachés stationed in Israel, where, according to the Chilean embassy in Tel Aviv, their noble duties include “increasing the military bonds between the Ministry of Defense and its Israeli counterpart in order to comply with the Chilean Foreign and Defense Policy”, as well as “prospecting areas of military technology in the local defense industry that could be applicable in the relevant areas of the Chilean Army”.[17]

In 2019 Chile and Israel signed two Memoranda of Understanding related to security issues: 1) Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Cybersecurity between the Government of the Republic of Chile and the National Directorate of Cybersecurity of the State of Israel, and 2) Memorandum of Understanding in the areas of Security and National Security.[18]

Chile has made use of a variety of other security and intelligence services from Israel. Uzil, founded by Eli Rahamim, captain of the Special Anti-Terror and Anti-Kidnapping Forces of the Israeli army, gives anti-kidnapping courses.[19]

Cyber Security

Cellebrite is a technology company founded in Israel and operating in Chile,[20] which sells forensic services such as one that that allows police and research departments to immediately extract vital information from a cell phone found at a crime scene.[21]

A report by Citizenlab, showed in 2020 that Chile made use of invasive spyware by the Israeli company Circles, that is a subsidiary of NSO Group. The researchers identified a Circles system used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI, which in the past purchased surveillance systems from other companies like Hacking Team. Chile’s law enforcement agencies have a long history of human and civil rights violations and in the past were able to intercept calls and WhatsApp message exchanges of journalists and opposition leaders.[22]

In January 2020, Infodefensa reported that the administrative department of the Chilean Investigative Police awarded S2T the acquisition of the Better Tomorrow biometric recognition software by Anyvision for an estimated amount of $30,000.[23]

Usage of Israeli Arms:

Litening EO Systems – In use on F-5 combat aircraft in Chilean Air Force.

Hermes-900 UAVs – In use since 2011 at the borders with Bolivia and Peru.[24]

Spylite Mini-UAVs – In use by Chilean Army since 2013 for espionage missions.[25]

Sandcat TPVs – In use by Chilean police.

SMART Alarm System – In use since 2012 nationwide.

Pegasus – used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI.

Human Rights Violations:

Human rights abuses were rampant during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, 1973-1990. These abuses were documented during two truth commissions, the Rettig Commission (1990-1991)[26], which documented 3,428 cases of disappearance, killing, torture and kidnapping, and the Valech Commission (2003-2005)[27],which resulted in compensation to 28,459 victims of torture or detention or their families.

The policies and culture established during Pinochet’s dictatorship undermined human rights for years after. The Constitution established during this period was not consistent with international human rights laws, and a 1978 amnesty law prohibited prosecution for crimes during and after the coup that brought Pinochet to power. Further, the armed forces and the business community remained strongly pro-Pinochet, and resisted any changes. [28]

During the presidency of Ricardo Lagos (2000 -2006) substantial progress was made, including a new code of criminal procedure, removal of immunity from prosecution for Pinochet, and the Valech Commission.[29]

The revised code of criminal procedure was in part responsible for an increase in incarceration, with 320 prisoners per 100,000 in 2010, the highest rate in South America. Police abuses continued, however, especially in relations to the indigenous Mapuche communities, often by the misuse of counter-terrorism legislation. In addition, the Supreme Court substantially reduced the sentences of many who had been convicted for human rights abuses.[30]

The military courts retained jurisdiction over civilian cases until 2010, while leaving unchanged their jurisdiction over police abuses.[31]

Despite the progress in various areas, incidences of torture and illegal detention have continued, as has the use of counter-terrorism laws against Mapache land activists. In 2019-2020 were large mostly peaceful demonstrations in which thousands of people were injured, in part as a result of police abuses, although some demonstrators also attacked and injured almost 2000 police officers.[32]

Sales Records Table:

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1. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/relacion-bilateral/relaciones-bilaterales

2. ^ https://datos.bancomundial.org/

3. ^ https://fr.timesofisrael.com/netanyahu-et-rivlin-ont-rencontre-le-chef-de-la-diplomatie-ivoirienne/

4. ^ https://orientxxi.info/magazine/chile-a-testing-ground-for-israeli-weapons,3462

5. ^ https://www.sipri.org/databases/armstransfers

6. ^ ; https://972mag.com/investigate-israeli-complicity-with-pinochets-crimes/125566/

7. ^ https://www.stopthewall.org/resources/report-israeli-militarism-latin-america/

8. ^ https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_29_31__1.html ; https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_2_2_36_1.htmlz

9. ^ https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_6_7_153_1.html

10. ^ http://www.bat.co.il/ ; https://whoprofits.org/company/beit-alpha-technologies-b-a-t/

11. ^ http://www.rt.co.il/skystar-180-systems-in-chile

12. ^ http://www.famae.cl/agregado-de-defensa-de-israel-visito-famae/

13. ^ https://www.jpost.com/business-and-innovation/tech/israeli-missile-alert-technology-saves-lives-in-chile-476563

14. ^ http://www.israelenlinea.com/internacional/noticias-internacionales/america-latina/8189-chile-ej%C3%A9rcito-adquiere-mini-drones-israel%C3%ADes.html

15. ^ https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2018/03/23/noticia-chile-israel-potenciaran-cooperacion-formacion-militar.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=tt-comp

16. ^ http://www.sibat.mod.gov.il/Worldwide/Pages/SouthAmerica.aspx

17. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/en/sobre-la-embajada/agregadurias/agregadurias-militares/

18. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/en/bilateral-relation/bilateral-relations/relaciones-bilaterales

19. ^ http://www.uzil.com.br/sobre-a-empresa

20. ^ http://www.fiscaliadechile.cl/transparencia/documentos/transparencia_agosto_2015.xlsx ; https://www.cellebrite.com/en/contact/

21. ^ https://www.poderpda.com/investigacion-y-desarrollo/cellebrite-transferencias-de-datos-e-investigacion-forense/

22. ^ https://www.calcalistech.com/ctech/articles/0,7340,L-3878410,00.html

23. ^ https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2020/01/09/noticia-chile-incorporara-software-biometrico-anyvision-better-tomorrow.html

24. ^ http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/pais/2011/10/05/chile-compra-aviones-no-tripulados-a-empresa-israeli/

25. ^ http://www.israelenlinea.com/internacional/noticias-internacionales/america-latina/8189-chile-ej%C3%A9rcito-adquiere-mini-drones-israel%C3%ADes.html

26. ^ https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/collections/truth_commissions/Chile90-Report/Chile90-Report.pdf

27. ^ https://www.usip.org/publications/2003/09/commission-inquiry-chile-03

28. ^ https://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k/americas-02.htm

29. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2005/country-chapters/chile

30. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2010/country-chapters/chile

31. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/chile

32. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/chile

Chile

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Pinochet, including missiles, radars, small arms, as well as aircrafts, naval vessels and cluster bombs. Today Israel continues to export security and military products and services to Chile. There is evidence that Israel were and are used in the repression and human rights violations of Chilean people. done by the Chilean army and police.
Chile recognized the state of Israel in 1949, and there have been more than 50 diplomatic visits between the two countries since that time.[1] The trading relationship is strong, totaling $223 million in 2016 ($137.3 million imports, $85.9 million in exports).[2]

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, becoming its main supplier in 1976 after the US administration suspended all military aid.[3] This included missiles, radars, light weapons, as well as air and naval vessels and cluster bombs technology.[4] [5]

There is evidence that Israel weapons were used in the repression and human rights violation of the Chilean people done by the Chilean military during and after the Pinochet regime.[6]

Israel helped support the development of the aeronautical industry [7] and there are strong links between the Navies and Air Force of the two countries.[8] [9]

Arms purchases decelerated considerably with the end of the military government in 1989 but did not stop completely, and were reactivated in 2000. Chile’s purchases from private Israeli companies include special anti-riot vehicles equipped with water cannon systems designed for inmate control in prisons from Beit Alfa Technologies[10], and Skystars (aerostats) from RT Aerostats Systems.[11] Chile also purchased the patent for the Galil Ace rifle from IWI, produced today in Chile and intended for the Chilean military.[12]

In 2012 Chile purchased an national alert system from the Israeli company Evigilo. the system was developed with and for the Israeli army and was used by the Israeli Army Home Front Command during operations in Gaza.[13]

In 2013 the Chilean army bought mini drones for espionage for $3 million dollars. These drones are produced by BlueBird Aero Systems, and are known as SpyLite.[14]

In 2018, the Israeli and Chilean armies signed new cooperation initiatives in military education and training, leadership command and training methods. The agreement was signed in Chile by Israeli Major General Yaacov Barak and Chilean General Ricardo Martinez. During the visit, Barak toured with the Lautaro Special Operations Brigade. The former commander of the Lautaro Brigade, Javier Iturriaga, was appointed Head of National Defence by Piñera as the government imposed a state of emergency to counter the nationwide protests in Chile.[15]

Israel have a defense attaché in Santiago de Chile that is in charge of Chile, Argentina, Ecuador and Paraguay.[16] Chile, too, has military attachés stationed in Israel, where, according to the Chilean embassy in Tel Aviv, their noble duties include “increasing the military bonds between the Ministry of Defense and its Israeli counterpart in order to comply with the Chilean Foreign and Defense Policy”, as well as “prospecting areas of military technology in the local defense industry that could be applicable in the relevant areas of the Chilean Army”.[17]

In 2019 Chile and Israel signed two Memoranda of Understanding related to security issues: 1) Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Cybersecurity between the Government of the Republic of Chile and the National Directorate of Cybersecurity of the State of Israel, and 2) Memorandum of Understanding in the areas of Security and National Security.[18]

Chile has made use of a variety of other security and intelligence services from Israel. Uzil, founded by Eli Rahamim, captain of the Special Anti-Terror and Anti-Kidnapping Forces of the Israeli army, gives anti-kidnapping courses.[19]

Cyber Security

Cellebrite is a technology company founded in Israel and operating in Chile,[20] which sells forensic services such as one that that allows police and research departments to immediately extract vital information from a cell phone found at a crime scene.[21]

A report by Citizenlab, showed in 2020 that Chile made use of invasive spyware by the Israeli company Circles, that is a subsidiary of NSO Group. The researchers identified a Circles system used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI, which in the past purchased surveillance systems from other companies like Hacking Team. Chile’s law enforcement agencies have a long history of human and civil rights violations and in the past were able to intercept calls and WhatsApp message exchanges of journalists and opposition leaders.[22]

In January 2020, Infodefensa reported that the administrative department of the Chilean Investigative Police awarded S2T the acquisition of the Better Tomorrow biometric recognition software by Anyvision for an estimated amount of $30,000.[23]

Litening EO Systems – In use on F-5 combat aircraft in Chilean Air Force. Hermes-900 UAVs – In use since 2011 at the borders with Bolivia and Peru.[24] Spylite Mini-UAVs – In use by Chilean Army since 2013 for espionage missions.[25] Sandcat TPVs – In use by Chilean police. SMART Alarm System – In use since 2012 nationwide. Pegasus – used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI.
Human rights abuses were rampant during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, 1973-1990. These abuses were documented during two truth commissions, the Rettig Commission (1990-1991)[26], which documented 3,428 cases of disappearance, killing, torture and kidnapping, and the Valech Commission (2003-2005)[27],which resulted in compensation to 28,459 victims of torture or detention or their families. The policies and culture established during Pinochet’s dictatorship undermined human rights for years after. The Constitution established during this period was not consistent with international human rights laws, and a 1978 amnesty law prohibited prosecution for crimes during and after the coup that brought Pinochet to power. Further, the armed forces and the business community remained strongly pro-Pinochet, and resisted any changes. [28] During the presidency of Ricardo Lagos (2000 -2006) substantial progress was made, including a new code of criminal procedure, removal of immunity from prosecution for Pinochet, and the Valech Commission.[29] The revised code of criminal procedure was in part responsible for an increase in incarceration, with 320 prisoners per 100,000 in 2010, the highest rate in South America. Police abuses continued, however, especially in relations to the indigenous Mapuche communities, often by the misuse of counter-terrorism legislation. In addition, the Supreme Court substantially reduced the sentences of many who had been convicted for human rights abuses.[30] The military courts retained jurisdiction over civilian cases until 2010, while leaving unchanged their jurisdiction over police abuses.[31] Despite the progress in various areas, incidences of torture and illegal detention have continued, as has the use of counter-terrorism laws against Mapache land activists. In 2019-2020 were large mostly peaceful demonstrations in which thousands of people were injured, in part as a result of police abuses, although some demonstrators also attacked and injured almost 2000 police officers.[32]

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