Chile

Introduction:

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Pinochet, including missiles, radars, small arms, as well as aircrafts, naval vessels and cluster bombs. Today Israel continues to export security and military products and services to Chile.

There is evidence that Israel were and are used in the repression and human rights violations of Chilean people. done by the Chilean army and police.

Israel - Chile Relations:

Chile recognized the state of Israel in 1949, and there have been more than 50 diplomatic visits between the two countries since that time.[1] 

The trading relationship is strong, totaling $223 million in 2016 ($137.3 million imports, $85.9 million in exports).[2]

Military relations:

Israel began supplying weapons to Chile during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, becoming its main supplier in 1976 after the US administration suspended all military aid.[3] This included missiles, radars, light weapons, as well as air and naval vessels and cluster bombs technology.[4] [5]

There is evidence that Israel weapons were used in the repression and human rights violation of the Chilean people done by the Chilean military during and after the Pinochet regime.[6]

Israel helped support the development of the aeronautical industry [7] and there are strong links between the Navies and Air Force of the two countries.[8] [9]

Arms purchases decelerated considerably with the end of the military government in 1989 but did not stop completely, and were reactivated in 2000. Chile’s purchases from private Israeli companies include special anti-riot vehicles equipped with water cannon systems designed for inmate control in prisons from Beit Alfa Technologies[10], and Skystars (aerostats) from RT Aerostats Systems.[11] Chile also purchased the patent for the Galil Ace rifle from IWI, produced today in Chile and intended for the Chilean military.[12]

In 2012 Chile purchased an national alert system from the Israeli company Evigilo. the system was developed with and for the Israeli army and was used by the Israeli Army Home Front Command during operations in Gaza.[13]

In 2013 the Chilean army bought mini drones for espionage for $3 million dollars. These drones are produced by BlueBird Aero Systems, and are known as SpyLite.[14]

In 2018, the Israeli and Chilean armies signed new cooperation initiatives in military education and training, leadership command and training methods. The agreement was signed in Chile by Israeli Major General Yaacov Barak and Chilean General Ricardo Martinez. During the visit, Barak toured with the Lautaro Special Operations Brigade. The former commander of the Lautaro Brigade, Javier Iturriaga, was appointed Head of National Defence by Piñera as the government imposed a state of emergency to counter the nationwide protests in Chile.[15]

Israel have a defense attaché in Santiago de Chile that is in charge of Chile, Argentina, Ecuador and Paraguay.[16] Chile, too, has military attachés stationed in Israel, where, according to the Chilean embassy in Tel Aviv, their noble duties include “increasing the military bonds between the Ministry of Defense and its Israeli counterpart in order to comply with the Chilean Foreign and Defense Policy”, as well as “prospecting areas of military technology in the local defense industry that could be applicable in the relevant areas of the Chilean Army”.[17]

In 2019 Chile and Israel signed two Memoranda of Understanding related to security issues: 1) Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Cybersecurity between the Government of the Republic of Chile and the National Directorate of Cybersecurity of the State of Israel, and 2) Memorandum of Understanding in the areas of Security and National Security.[18]

Chile has made use of a variety of other security and intelligence services from Israel. Uzil, founded by Eli Rahamim, captain of the Special Anti-Terror and Anti-Kidnapping Forces of the Israeli army, gives anti-kidnapping courses.[19]

Cyber Security

Cellebrite is a technology company founded in Israel and operating in Chile,[20] which sells forensic services such as one that that allows police and research departments to immediately extract vital information from a cell phone found at a crime scene.[21]

A report by Citizenlab, showed in 2020 that Chile made use of invasive spyware by the Israeli company Circles, that is a subsidiary of NSO Group. The researchers identified a Circles system used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI, which in the past purchased surveillance systems from other companies like Hacking Team. Chile’s law enforcement agencies have a long history of human and civil rights violations and in the past were able to intercept calls and WhatsApp message exchanges of journalists and opposition leaders.[22]

In January 2020, Infodefensa reported that the administrative department of the Chilean Investigative Police awarded S2T the acquisition of the Better Tomorrow biometric recognition software by Anyvision for an estimated amount of $30,000.[23]

Usage of Israeli Arms:

Litening EO Systems – In use on F-5 combat aircraft in Chilean Air Force.

Hermes-900 UAVs – In use since 2011 at the borders with Bolivia and Peru.[24]

Spylite Mini-UAVs – In use by Chilean Army since 2013 for espionage missions.[25]

Sandcat TPVs – In use by Chilean police.

SMART Alarm System – In use since 2012 nationwide.

Pegasus – used by the country’s premier law enforcement agency, the PDI.

Human Rights Violations:

Human rights abuses were rampant during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, 1973-1990. These abuses were documented during two truth commissions, the Rettig Commission (1990-1991)[26], which documented 3,428 cases of disappearance, killing, torture and kidnapping, and the Valech Commission (2003-2005)[27],which resulted in compensation to 28,459 victims of torture or detention or their families.

The policies and culture established during Pinochet’s dictatorship undermined human rights for years after. The Constitution established during this period was not consistent with international human rights laws, and a 1978 amnesty law prohibited prosecution for crimes during and after the coup that brought Pinochet to power. Further, the armed forces and the business community remained strongly pro-Pinochet, and resisted any changes. [28]

During the presidency of Ricardo Lagos (2000 -2006) substantial progress was made, including a new code of criminal procedure, removal of immunity from prosecution for Pinochet, and the Valech Commission.[29]

The revised code of criminal procedure was in part responsible for an increase in incarceration, with 320 prisoners per 100,000 in 2010, the highest rate in South America. Police abuses continued, however, especially in relations to the indigenous Mapuche communities, often by the misuse of counter-terrorism legislation. In addition, the Supreme Court substantially reduced the sentences of many who had been convicted for human rights abuses.[30]

The military courts retained jurisdiction over civilian cases until 2010, while leaving unchanged their jurisdiction over police abuses.[31]

Despite the progress in various areas, incidences of torture and illegal detention have continued, as has the use of counter-terrorism laws against Mapache land activists. In 2019-2020 were large mostly peaceful demonstrations in which thousands of people were injured, in part as a result of police abuses, although some demonstrators also attacked and injured almost 2000 police officers.[32]

Sales Records Table:

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1. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/relacion-bilateral/relaciones-bilaterales

2. ^ https://datos.bancomundial.org/

3. ^ https://fr.timesofisrael.com/netanyahu-et-rivlin-ont-rencontre-le-chef-de-la-diplomatie-ivoirienne/

4. ^ https://orientxxi.info/magazine/chile-a-testing-ground-for-israeli-weapons,3462

5. ^ https://www.sipri.org/databases/armstransfers

6. ^ ; https://972mag.com/investigate-israeli-complicity-with-pinochets-crimes/125566/

7. ^ https://www.stopthewall.org/resources/report-israeli-militarism-latin-america/

8. ^ https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_29_31__1.html ; https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_2_2_36_1.htmlz

9. ^ https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/tax/port/all/taxport_6_7_153_1.html

10. ^ http://www.bat.co.il/ ; https://whoprofits.org/company/beit-alpha-technologies-b-a-t/

11. ^ http://www.rt.co.il/skystar-180-systems-in-chile

12. ^ http://www.famae.cl/agregado-de-defensa-de-israel-visito-famae/

13. ^ https://www.jpost.com/business-and-innovation/tech/israeli-missile-alert-technology-saves-lives-in-chile-476563

14. ^ http://www.israelenlinea.com/internacional/noticias-internacionales/america-latina/8189-chile-ej%C3%A9rcito-adquiere-mini-drones-israel%C3%ADes.html

15. ^ https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2018/03/23/noticia-chile-israel-potenciaran-cooperacion-formacion-militar.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=tt-comp

16. ^ http://www.sibat.mod.gov.il/Worldwide/Pages/SouthAmerica.aspx

17. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/en/sobre-la-embajada/agregadurias/agregadurias-militares/

18. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/israel/en/bilateral-relation/bilateral-relations/relaciones-bilaterales

19. ^ http://www.uzil.com.br/sobre-a-empresa

20. ^ http://www.fiscaliadechile.cl/transparencia/documentos/transparencia_agosto_2015.xlsx ; https://www.cellebrite.com/en/contact/

21. ^ https://www.poderpda.com/investigacion-y-desarrollo/cellebrite-transferencias-de-datos-e-investigacion-forense/

22. ^ https://www.calcalistech.com/ctech/articles/0,7340,L-3878410,00.html

23. ^ https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2020/01/09/noticia-chile-incorporara-software-biometrico-anyvision-better-tomorrow.html

24. ^ http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/pais/2011/10/05/chile-compra-aviones-no-tripulados-a-empresa-israeli/

25. ^ http://www.israelenlinea.com/internacional/noticias-internacionales/america-latina/8189-chile-ej%C3%A9rcito-adquiere-mini-drones-israel%C3%ADes.html

26. ^ https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/resources/collections/truth_commissions/Chile90-Report/Chile90-Report.pdf

27. ^ https://www.usip.org/publications/2003/09/commission-inquiry-chile-03

28. ^ https://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k/americas-02.htm

29. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2005/country-chapters/chile

30. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2010/country-chapters/chile

31. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/chile

32. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/chile

Chile

Israel provided Côte d’Ivoire aid in fields of military, agriculture and health since 1962. After a civil war broke out in Côte d’Ivoire in 200 and despite an international arms-embargo there is evidence, that Israeli arms and equipment was supplied to the country. Among others, drones, rifles, night vision devices and surveillance technology were supplied to Côte d’Ivoire between 2003-2020 and was used in two civil wars resulting with the death of around 5,000 people.

In 1962 the two countries signed a cooperation agreement and exchanged ambassadors. Israel provided aid, primarily in the form of technical expertise, to the Ivoirian military and to the agricultural, tourism, and banking sectors. After being stopped in 1973, Côte d’Ivoire president Félix Houphouët-Boigny announced the resumption of diplomatic relations in 1986.

In 2012, Alassane Ouattara, current President of Côte d’Ivoire, made an official visit to Israel.[1] some sources reported that Ouattara’s visit was also linked to security concerns. Faced with attempts at destabilization in the West and deprived of the support of Nicolas Sarkozy, the Ivorian president was reportedly seeking a strategic rapprochement with Israel.[2]

In 2016 Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met with Côte d’Ivoire Foreign Minister Dr. Abdallah Albert Toikeusse Mabri, during his visit in Israel. [3] In 2019 Israeli and Ivorian entrepreneurs met in Tel Aviv for a first bilateral economic summit aimed at strengthening and developing relations between the two countries.[4]

Israel exports to Côte d’Ivoire was $8.33 million during 2018, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade.[5]

According to European Union data, between 200,000 and 300,000 people in the Côte d’Ivoire make a living from the country’s diamond trade, which amounts to between 50,000 and 300,000 carats annually. Since the late 1990s, the Côte d’Ivoire has experienced extreme political instability, with one coup in 1999, and two civil wars raging between 2002 and 2007, and during 2010-2011. In 2005 The political and social unrest has led the UN to impose a decade-long ban on rough diamonds originating from the country. The ban was lifted in 2014.[6] A United Nations report from 2009 on trade in “blood diamonds” – rough stones whose sale is used to fund conflicts – raises the possibility that an Israeli company active in Liberia and Ramat Gan was dealing in diamonds whose proceeds are used to support rebels in the Côte d’Ivoire.[7]

Israel sold weapons to the Ivoirian government between 2002-2003, according to a report by Amnesty International.[8] In 2004, during a civil war in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN declared an arms-embargo on the country. Despite the embargo there is evidence, that Israeli arms and equipment was supplied to the Côte d’Ivoire after the declaration.

In 2005 after demanding the Israel Foreign and Defense ministries to stop exporting weapons from Israel to the Ivory Coast, the French government demanded information on companies selling arms to the Côte d’Ivoire, where a civil war was raging. The demand, which indirectly placed responsibility on Israeli companies for the death of French soldiers on a peace-keeping mission, was apparently raised by the French Embassy’s military attaché or a representative of its intelligence agencies in talks with Defense Ministry officials.[9] According to a Haaretz report, among the Israeli companies involved in weapons sales to the Côte d’Ivoire were Aeronautics Defense Systems, which in 2003 sold 2 Aerostar UAVs to the country and sent personnel to maintain them. The drones were delivered in 2004. The French said their soldiers were killed when drones and surveillance systems assisted the Côte d’Ivoire air force in attacking a base where they were stationed.[10] [11] In 2008, Côte d’Ivoire’s president Laurent Gbagbo said in an interview that Côte d’Ivoire purchased the Israeli drones for the purpose of surveillance.[12]

Different reports show that private Israeli businessmen were involved in different arms deals; Israeli arms dealer Moshe Rothschild sold aircraft, parts and ammunition purchased in Eastern Europe; and Israeli businessman Hezi Betzalel sold surveillance systems manufactured by the Israeli company, Verint Systems.[13] [14]

In 2016 A report of the UN Security Council on Côte d’Ivoire said Israeli companies violated the UN arms embargo on the West-African nation. According to the report, “violations of the arms embargo have involved small arms, heavy weapons and related ammunition”.[15] Also the import of night vision equipment by an Israeli company named Troya Tech Defense was mentioned. During routine inspections of ports in Côte d’Ivoire shipments of night-vision goggles and infrared thermal imaging devices were found in 2015.[16]

In 2020 visual evidence showed Ivorian special forces troops training with a variety of weapons, including Tavor rifles from Israeli company IWI.[17]

In 2018 the research organization Citizen Lab published that they found evidence of the surveillance malware Pegasus, being operated in Côte d’Ivoire.[18] The controversial spyware Pegasus was developed by the Israeli company NSO Group. Anderson Diédri, a reporter who worked on reporting in Côte d’Ivoire as part of the West Africa Leaks, an international corruption investigation, says that Pegasus’s presence in the country constitutes an “unacceptable threat to the freedom of the press, especially investigative journalism.”[19]

Tavor rifles: 3rd Airborne Unit of the Côte d’Ivoire Special Forces[20].

Aerostar drones:  were reportedly being used by Ivorian military forces.

Pegasus: was used in Côte d’Ivoire

Civil wars:

The first Ivorian civil war began in 2002. A failed coup fueled unrest and ignited civil war, leaving the country divided into the rebel-held north and the government-controlled south. Peacekeeping troops from France, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and later the United Nations (UN) created a buffer zone, known as the “zone of confidence,” between the rebels, known as the New Forces, and the Ivoirian government troops. In 2004 the already volatile situation worsened when French peacekeeping troops were accidentally killed in one of the Ivoirian bombing raids, prompting retaliatory bombing by France that in turn resulted in anti-French demonstrations and the looting and burning of French businesses, schools, and residences. In response to the escalating situation, the UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Côte d’Ivoire in an attempt to stem the influx of weapons into the region. In April 2005 peace talks held in South Africa led to a new cease-fire agreement between the Ivoirian government and the rebels, with all parties declaring an end to the war. More than 1,500 people died in the war.

In 2011 when a new crisis Ivory Coast escalated into full-scale military conflict between forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, and supporters of the internationally recognized president-elect Alassane Ouattara. After months of unsuccessful negotiations and sporadic violence between supporters of the two sides, the crisis entered a critical stage as Ouattara’s forces seized control of most of the country with the help of the UN, with Gbagbo entrenched in Abidjan, the country’s largest city. International organizations have reported numerous instances of human rights violations by both sides, in particular in the city of Duékoué where Ouattara’s forces killed hundreds of people. Overall casualties of the war are estimated around 3000. Nearly 700,000 Ivorians were displaced. The UN and French forces took military action, with the stated objective to protect their forces and civilians. France’s forces arrested Gbagbo at his residence on 11 April 2011.  [21] [22]  He faced four charges of crimes against humanity, including murder, rape, and persecution in the International Criminal Court.[23] [24]

Arms Transfers During Civil Wars:

Angola, China, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Israel sold weapons to the Ivoirian government between 2002 and 2003, according to an Amnesty International report. A 2004 UN arms embargo did little to halt the flow of weapons into the country, according to the report.[25] Spending on military hardware eventually climbed to more than 10 percent of the Côte d’Ivoire’s national budget in 2004-05.[26] Arms received both before and after the embargo went into effect were used during Ivory Coast’s 2010-11 post-election conflict.[27] [28]

Human Trafficking

Human trafficking in Ivory Coast is a long-standing problem. Although the country is used for domestic and international trafficking of children and adults, domestic trafficking of children is most prevalent. [29]Child labor in the cocoa industry is widespread, with children brought in from surrounding countries to work in poor conditions on the plantations.[30]

2019-2020

Journalists, human rights defenders, activists and opposition members faced arbitrary arrests, detention and deportations for expressing dissent in 2019 and 2020. Peaceful demonstrations were dispersed with the use of excessive force by security forces. On 4 October 2019, security forces killed one person and injured several others when they opened fire on protesters in Djébonoua against the arrest of an opposition politician.[31]

Côte d’Ivoire’s National Human Rights Council reported on 10th of November 2020 that 55 people were killed and 282 injured between October 31 and November 10 in the political and intercommunal violence that accompanied presidential elections. Security forces failed to adequately protect civilians and in at least one case used excessive force to disperse opposition-led protests, shooting dead at least two demonstrators and beating a man unconscious. President Alassane Ouattara was re-elected for a third term with a reported 94 percent of the vote in the controversial election, which the main opposition parties boycotted. The poll triggered confrontations between opposition and government supporters in the capital, Abidjan, and at least eight other towns, resulting in brutal street clashes fought with machetes, clubs, and hunting rifles. Since the election, Ivorian authorities have arrested a dozen opposition party members, who rejected the results and said they had formed a National Transitional Council to organize new elections.[32]

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Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
2 Aerostar drones
Aeronautics Defense Systems
2003 (2004)
Sipri
night vision equipment
Troya Tech Defense
2015
$52.5thousand
inclduing night vision goggles and infrared thermal imaging devices
https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israeli-night-vision-gear-reached-ivory-coast-despite-embargo-1.5440131