Angola

Introduction:

 

Israel, that keeps diplomatic and economic ties with Angola supplied Angolan forces with arms and military training since the 1960s, during the Angolan War of Independence. Angola purchased among others helicopters, patrol boats and rifles from Israel.

Israel – Angola Relations:

 

Angola established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. [1] In 1995 the Israeli embassy opened in Luanda, and in 2000 Angola opened an embassy in Tel Aviv.[2]

In December 1992 a ten member Angolan delegation, headed by António dos Santos França, visited Israel. [3] In 2006 the president of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, held an official visit to Israel.[4] In August 2012, during a visit to Israel by the Angolan Foreign Minister, an agreement was signed to strengthen mutual ties. Then President Shimon Peres said, in response to signing of the agreement, that cooperation between the two countries would be based on the fields of science and technology, economics, and various security issues.[5]

In 2006, trade between Israel and Angola totaled $400 million.[6] The scope of Israeli export to Angola in 2014 was $64 million with the main goods being machines, metals, transportation, plastic and rubbers and instruments.[7] Angola exports to Israel was $452,45 million during 2018 with mineral fuels, oils, machinery and diamonds being the main goods.

Military relations:

 

The Israeli government aided the National Front for the Liberation of Angola in 1963 and 1969, during the Angolan War of Independence. In the 1960s, Holden Roberto, head of the NFLA, visited Israel and FNLA members were sent to Israel for training. In the 1970s, Israel shipped arms to the FNLA through Zaire.

In the 1980s an Israeli company, founded by three ex-air force pilots, named LR got involved in defense exports in Angola and spent years massively arming the Angolan government and training its troops.[8] LR built border security systems on the coasts of Angola and Angolan military bases and airports.[9] The company, according to different reports, sold Sukhoi 27 combat planes, artillery shells and light weapons to the government. In early 1993, Galil rifles appeared in combat zones. Human Rights Watch observed Galils in the hands of some Rapid Intervention Police and soldiers deployed in Luanda.[10]

LR also built airports and security systems. LR upgraded the artillery systems of Angola, including technologies of Elbit and as part of the deal trained the Angolan artillery soldiers together with the Israeli company Azimuth.[11] In 2001 LR organized an arms deal for eight Bell-212 helicopters for estimated $25 million including the training of pilots in Israel.[12] The company also built in cooperation with Aeronautics a pilot-academy in Angola and security systems for oil rigs for American oil companies (Chevron) including drones.[13] [14] In the 2000s LR broke into civilian fields: infrastructure, technology, agriculture, philanthropic work, medicine.[15]

The largest reported Israeli arms deal in Africa is a set of contracts worth $1 billion with Angola in 2006. This included unidentified equipment from the Israeli arms companies Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Tadiran as well as $230 million for self-propelled artillery, mortars and ammunition from the Israeli arms company Soltam Systems. However, the deals have never been confirmed nor have there been reports of equipment produced by these companies in Angola.[16] Other Deals not yet confirmed by SIPRI include Angolan Cessna Citations configured for maritime surveillance by Israel’s BIRD Aerosystems.[17]

In a different case several senior French political figures together with the Israeli arms dealer Arcadi Gaydamak were accused for supplying arms to the Angolan government in 1993 for use in its war against UNITA rebels, circumventing an arms embargo. The Equipment that was sold included 6 warships, 12 helicopters, 420 tanks, 150,000 shells, 170,000 anti-personnel mines and was valued $790 milllion. A French court convicted 36 individuals in 2008, including Gaydamak, but some of these convictions were overturned in 2011.[18]

IAI and other Israeli companies cooperated with a Polish company in developing a modernization package for Su-22 combat aircraft largely based on Israeli avionics. An unknown number of Angolan Su-22s have since been modernized in Angola and Poland. In addition to Israeli avionics, ‘smart munitions’ (most likely guided bombs) have possibly been delivered to Angola by Israel for the Su-22.[19]

In 2015 Angola purchased 4 Super Dvora MK-III patrol vessels from IAI.

Usage of Israeli Arms:

Uzi submachine gun – used by Angolan Armed Forces [20]

IWI Micro Tavor – used by Angolan Armed Forces.[21]

Bell 212 Helicopter – In use by Angolan Air Force.[22]

Sukhoi 22 – In use by Angolan Air Force[23]

Cessna Citation I – In use by Angolan Air Force[24]

Super Dvora MK-III – in use by Angolan Navy.[25]

Human Rights Violations:

 

Angolan Civil War:

The Angolan civil war began in 1975 and ended in 2002. It began after Angola became independent from Portugal and was a power struggle between two former anti-colonial guerilla movements, the MPLA and the UNITA. It was used as a surrogate battleground for the Cold War by states such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, South Africa and the US.[26] More than 500,000 people died and over one million were internally displaced. The war devastated Angola’s infrastructure and damaged severely public administration, the economy and religious institutions. [27]

External support played a major role in the funding of Angola’s civil war. UNITA was supplied with $80 million in arms, military training and logistics by the South African government in the 1980s. Also Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, Somalia, Israel, The U.S, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait supplied arms or aid in training to UNITA. The FNLA received support from several external sources, among others France, China and the U.S. FNLA troops were sent to Israel for training and arms were supplied to the FNLA by Israel during the 1970s, through Zaire.[28] The MPLA secured external funding through USSR, Cuba and People’s Republic of Congo.

Others:

Angola has long been severely criticized for its human-rights record. A 2012 report by the U.S. Department of State said, “The three most important human rights abuses [in 2012] were official corruption and impunity; limits on the freedoms of assembly, association, speech, and press; and cruel and excessive punishment, including reported cases of torture and beatings as well as unlawful killings by police and other security personnel. Other human rights abuses included: harsh and potentially life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; lengthy pretrial detention; impunity for human rights abusers; lack of judicial process and judicial inefficiency; infringements on citizens’ privacy rights and forced evictions without compensation; restrictions on nongovernmental organizations; discrimination and violence against women; abuse of children; trafficking in persons; discrimination against persons with disabilities, indigenous people, and persons with HIV/AIDS; limits on workers’ rights; and forced labor”.[29]

In 2019 freedom of expression and peaceful assembly continued to be undermined, despite the initial signs of progress. Land disputes due to large scale acquisition for private use continued to undermine the right to food and water in rural parts of the country. Failure to fulfill the right to water in both rural and urban areas remained as significant as ever. The rights of LGBTI people remained at risk in practice despite legislative improvements. [30]

Extrajudicial killings in the diamond fields of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul continued with impunity in 2019. Government and private security forces continued to conduct extrajudicial killings of those suspected of illegal diamond mining. Kwango, Lukapa and Lusage were the most affected with more than 40 people killed by the military in July and August 2019. In August 2019, 36 people were killed in Kalonda. Although the traditional authorities asked the Angolan government to intervene to stem the killings, no action had been taken by year’s end. [31]

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
8 Bell 212 helicopters
2004 (2004-2005)
$25m (estimated)
second hand, Israel company LR was involved in the deal
Sipri
4 Super Dvora MK-3 patrol crafts
IAI
2015 (2016)
Sipri

1. ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/archives/africa/ANGOLA94N.htm

2. ^ http://www.israelangola.co.il/en/about-angola/relations-angola-israel/

3. ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/archives/africa/ANGOLA94N.htm

4. ^ http://www.israelangola.co.il/en/about-angola/relations-angola-israel/

5. ^ http://www.israelangola.co.il/en/about-angola/relations-angola-israel/

6. ^ http://www.israelangola.co.il/en/about-angola/relations-angola-israel/

7. ^ http://www.israelangola.co.il/en/about-angola/israeli-export-angola/

8. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-the-israeli-businessmen-who-got-rich-off-angola-s-war-and-their-ties-to-cyberattack-1.6792027?lts=1605776929398

9. ^ https://www.haaretz.co.il/misc/1.1317770

10. ^ https://www.hrw.org/reports/archives/africa/ANGOLA94N.htm

11. ^ https://www.haaretz.co.il/misc/1.1317770

12. ^ https://www.haaretz.co.il/misc/1.1317770

13. ^ https://www.haaretz.co.il/misc/1.1-317770

14. ^ https://electronicintifada.net/content/israeli-arms-fuel-atrocities-africa/14844

15. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-the-israeli-businessmen-who-got-rich-off-angola-s-war-and-their-ties-to-cyberattack-1.6792027?lts=1605776929398

16. ^ https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/misc/SIPRIBP1110.pdf

17. ^ https://sldinfo.com/2018/03/arms-exports-from-israel-to-africa-on-the-upswing/

18. ^ https://sites.tufts.edu/corruptarmsdeals/angolagate/

19. ^ https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/misc/SIPRIBP1110.pdf

20. ^ https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20150721-sale-of-uzi-manufacturer-highlights-israeli-hypocrisy-towards-arms-trade/

21. ^ https://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/by-country.asp?Nation=Angola

22. ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/reports/world-air-forces-2020/135665.article

23. ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/reports/world-air-forces-2020/135665.article

24. ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/reports/world-air-forces-2020/135665.article

25. ^ https://www.defenceweb.co.za/sea/sea-sea/angola-confirmed-as-super-dvora-mk-3-patrol-boat-customer/

26. ^ https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/angolan-civil-war-1975-2002-brief-history

27. ^ https://www.refworld.org/docid/3dedf3204.html

28. ^ https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/angolan-civil-war-1975-2002-brief-history

29. ^ https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/204298.pdf

30. ^ https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/#_ftn12

31. ^ https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/

Angola

Angola established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. [1] In 1995 the Israeli embassy opened in Luanda, and in 2000 Angola opened an embassy in Tel Aviv.[2]

In December 1992 a ten member Angolan delegation, headed by António dos Santos França, visited Israel. [3] In 2006 the president of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, held an official visit to Israel.[4] In August 2012, during a visit to Israel by the Angolan Foreign Minister, an agreement was signed to strengthen mutual ties. Then President Shimon Peres said, in response to signing of the agreement, that cooperation between the two countries would be based on the fields of science and technology, economics, and various security issues.[5]

In 2006, trade between Israel and Angola totaled $400 million.[6] The scope of Israeli export to Angola in 2014 was $64 million with the main goods being machines, metals, transportation, plastic and rubbers and instruments.[7] Angola exports to Israel was $452,45 million during 2018 with mineral fuels, oils, machinery and diamonds being the main goods.

Military relations:

The Israeli government aided the National Front for the Liberation of Angola in 1963 and 1969, during the Angolan War of Independence. In the 1960s, Holden Roberto, head of the NFLA, visited Israel and FNLA members were sent to Israel for training. In the 1970s, Israel shipped arms to the FNLA through Zaire.

In the 1980s an Israeli company, founded by three ex-air force pilots, named LR got involved in defense exports in Angola and spent years massively arming the Angolan government and training its troops.[8] LR built border security systems on the coasts of Angola and Angolan military bases and airports.[9] The company, according to different reports, sold Sukhoi 27 combat planes, artillery shells and light weapons to the government. In early 1993, Galil rifles appeared in combat zones. Human Rights Watch observed Galils in the hands of some Rapid Intervention Police and soldiers deployed in Luanda.[10]

LR also built airports and security systems. LR upgraded the artillery systems of Angola, including technologies of Elbit and as part of the deal trained the Angolan artillery soldiers together with the Israeli company Azimuth.[11] In 2001 LR organized an arms deal for eigh Bell-212 helicopters for estimated $25 million including the training of pilots in Israel.[12] The company also built in cooperation with Aeronautics a pilot-academy in Angola and security systems for oil rigs for American oil companies (Chevron) including drones.[13] [14] In the 2000s LR broke into civilian fields: infrastructure, technology, agriculture, philanthropic work, medicine.[15]

The largest reported Israeli arms deal in Africa is a set of contracts worth $1 billion with Angola in 2006. This included unidentified equipment from the Israeli arms companies Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Tadiran as well as $230 million for self-propelled artillery, mortars and ammunition from the Israeli arms company Soltam. However, the deals have never been confirmed nor have there been reports of equipment produced by these companies in Angola.[16] Other Deals not yet confirmed by SIPRI include Angolan Cessna Citations configured for maritime surveillance by Israel’s BIRD Aerosystems.[17]

In a different case several senior French political figures together with the Israeli arms dealer Arcadi Gaydamak were accused for supplying arms to the Angolan government in 1993 for use in its war against UNITA rebels, circumventing an arms embargo. The Equipment that was sold included 6 warships, 12 helicopters, 420 tanks, 150,000 shells, 170,000 anti-personnel mines and was valued $790 milllion. A French court convicted 36 individuals in 2008, including Gaydamak, but some of these convictions were overturned in 2011.[18]

IAI and other Israeli companies cooperated with a Polish company in developing a modernization package for Su-22 combat aircraft largely based on Israeli avionics. An unknown number of Angolan Su-22s have since been modernized in Angola and Poland. In addition to Israeli avionics, ‘smart munitions’ (most likely guided bombs) have possibly been delivered to Angola by Israel for the Su-22.[19]

Uzi submachine gun – used by Angolan Armed Forces [20]

IWI Micro Tavor – used by Angolan Armed Forces.[21]

Bell 212 Helicopter – In use by Angolan Air Force.[22]

Sukhoi 22 – In use by Angolan Air Force[23]

Cessna Citation I – In use by Angolan Air Force[24]

Angolan Civil War:

The Angolan civil war began in 1975 and ended in 2002. It began after Angola became independent from Portugal and was a power struggle between two former anti-colonial guerilla movements, the MPLA and the UNITA. It was used as a surrogate battleground for the Cold War by states such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, South Africa and the US.[25] More than 500,000 people died and over one million were internally displaced. The war devastated Angola’s infrastructure and damaged severely public administration, the economy and religious institutions. [26]

External support played a major role in the funding of Angola’s civil war. UNITA was supplied with $80 million in arms, military training and logistics by the South African government in the 1980s. Also Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, Somalia, Israel, The U.S, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait supplied arms or aid in training to UNITA. The FNLA received support from several external sources, among others France, China and the U.S. FNLA troops were sent to Israel for training and arms were supplied to the FNLA by Israel during the 1970s, through Zaire.[27] The MPLA secured external funding through USSR, Cuba and People’s Republic of Congo.

Others:

Angola has long been severely criticized for its human-rights record. A 2012 report by the U.S. Department of State said, “The three most important human rights abuses [in 2012] were official corruption and impunity; limits on the freedoms of assembly, association, speech, and press; and cruel and excessive punishment, including reported cases of torture and beatings as well as unlawful killings by police and other security personnel. Other human rights abuses included: harsh and potentially life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; lengthy pretrial detention; impunity for human rights abusers; lack of judicial process and judicial inefficiency; infringements on citizens’ privacy rights and forced evictions without compensation; restrictions on nongovernmental organizations; discrimination and violence against women; abuse of children; trafficking in persons; discrimination against persons with disabilities, indigenous people, and persons with HIV/AIDS; limits on workers’ rights; and forced labor”.[28]

In 2019 freedom of expression and peaceful assembly continued to be undermined, despite the initial signs of progress. Land disputes due to large scale acquisition for private use continued to undermine the right to food and water in rural parts of the country. Failure to fulfill the right to water in both rural and urban areas remained as significant as ever. The rights of LGBTI people remained at risk in practice despite legislative improvements. [29]

Extrajudicial killings in the diamond fields of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul continued with impunity in 2019. Government and private security forces continued to conduct extrajudicial killings of those suspected of illegal diamond mining. Kwango, Lukapa and Lusage were the most affected with more than 40 people killed by the military in July and August 2019. In August 2019, 36 people were killed in Kalonda. Although the traditional authorities asked the Angolan government to intervene to stem the killings, no action had been taken by year’s end. [30]

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
8 Bell 212 helicopters
2004 (2004-2005)
$25m (estimated)
second hand, Israel company LR was involved in the deal
Sipri
4 Super Dvora MK-3 patrol crafts
IAI
2015 (2016)
Sipri