Israel – Turkey Relations:

Turkey was the first Muslim-majority country to recognize the state of Israel as early as March 1949. In 1958 Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion and Turkish prime minister Adnan Menderes met secretly to form the “peripheral pact.” This pact included joint public-relations campaigns towards citizens of both states supporting the relationship between the states, exchange of intelligence information, and support of each other’s militaries[1]. While condemning the 1967 war, Turkey did not join other Muslim-Majority countries in cutting diplomatic ties with Israel, and only downgraded the relations in 1980. In 1988 Turkey was the first country with diplomatic relations with Israel to also recognize a Palestinian state. This dual relationship continued throw-out the years. In 1992-1993 a series of agreements are signed between the countries including principles for cooperation signed between the defense ministries of Turkey and Israel, a tourism treaty was signed, the Turkish-Israeli Business Council was established, and state officials conducted several official visits with each other. Economic ties continued to grow in the 2000’s with Israel buying water from Turkey. 2009-2011 were a turning point, first due to the Israeli attack on Gaza in 2008-2009, and later the Israeli attack on the Marmara ship as part of the Gaza flotilla (see below). While most military relations between the countries didn’t not increase back, the general economic ties between the country have grown back quietly. In 2018 the trade between the countries was 1.4 billion USD – the same as it was in 2012[2].

Military Relations:

During the first decade of the 2000’s, Turkey was one of Israel’s biggest arms clients. This was always a complicated relationship, with Israel selling arms to, and training, Kurdish forces at the same time. Throughout the 2000s, Israel militarily supported Kurdish forces, including training in Syria and Iraq[3]. Around the same time, Israel sold 170 M60T tanks, worth $688 million[4]. In 2009, Turkey was Israel’s top arms client[5], but that was also a year of shift.Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was vocal in his opposition to Operation Cast Lead, going so far as to say that the war would harm military relations between the countries[6]. Israel continued exporting weapons to Turkey in 2010, but by 2011 there was another drop in sales, following the Israeli attack on the Gaza flotilla, which led to the killing of eight Turkish nationals, subsequently suspending Israeli-Turkish diplomatic relations[7]. Since then, Israel has strengthened military relations with Greece, and more recently Cyprus, that were previously limited due to the relationship with Turkey.

Usage of Israeli Arms:

Israeli Heron Drones sold to Turkey in 2005 were used in a Turkish invasion of Kurdish northern Iraq in 2008[8]. In Addition, the M60T tanks sold by Israel to Turkey in 2002 were used in the 2019 Turkish invasion of Rojava[9].

Human Rights Violations:

Internally, Turkey is seeing a continued erosion of its rule of law and democracy framework and president Erdoğan. Executive control and political influence over the judiciary in Turkey has led to courts systematically accepting bogus indictments, detaining and convicting individuals and groups despite lack of evidence of criminal activity. Among these are journalists, opposition politicians, activists and human rights defenders[10]. This has also included a crackdown on the LGBTQ community[11], and women’s rights[12]. Turkish on going aggression towards the Kurds within Turkey and beyond are an ongoing concern. This included the outlawing of political parties, media outlets and mass political arrests. The attack on Rojava in 2019 was the latest manifestation of this.

Sales Records Table:

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Israel provided Côte d’Ivoire aid in fields of military, agriculture and health since 1962. After a civil war broke out in Côte d’Ivoire in 200 and despite an international arms-embargo there is evidence, that Israeli arms and equipment was supplied to the country. Among others, drones, rifles, night vision devices and surveillance technology were supplied to Côte d’Ivoire between 2003-2020 and was used in two civil wars resulting with the death of around 5,000 people.

In 1962 the two countries signed a cooperation agreement and exchanged ambassadors. Israel provided aid, primarily in the form of technical expertise, to the Ivoirian military and to the agricultural, tourism, and banking sectors. After being stopped in 1973, Côte d’Ivoire president Félix Houphouët-Boigny announced the resumption of diplomatic relations in 1986.

In 2012, Alassane Ouattara, current President of Côte d’Ivoire, made an official visit to Israel.[1] some sources reported that Ouattara’s visit was also linked to security concerns. Faced with attempts at destabilization in the West and deprived of the support of Nicolas Sarkozy, the Ivorian president was reportedly seeking a strategic rapprochement with Israel.[2]

In 2016 Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met with Côte d’Ivoire Foreign Minister Dr. Abdallah Albert Toikeusse Mabri, during his visit in Israel. [3] In 2019 Israeli and Ivorian entrepreneurs met in Tel Aviv for a first bilateral economic summit aimed at strengthening and developing relations between the two countries.[4]

Israel exports to Côte d’Ivoire was $8.33 million during 2018, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade.[5]

According to European Union data, between 200,000 and 300,000 people in the Côte d’Ivoire make a living from the country’s diamond trade, which amounts to between 50,000 and 300,000 carats annually. Since the late 1990s, the Côte d’Ivoire has experienced extreme political instability, with one coup in 1999, and two civil wars raging between 2002 and 2007, and during 2010-2011. In 2005 The political and social unrest has led the UN to impose a decade-long ban on rough diamonds originating from the country. The ban was lifted in 2014.[6] A United Nations report from 2009 on trade in “blood diamonds” – rough stones whose sale is used to fund conflicts – raises the possibility that an Israeli company active in Liberia and Ramat Gan was dealing in diamonds whose proceeds are used to support rebels in the Côte d’Ivoire.[7]

Israel sold weapons to the Ivoirian government between 2002-2003, according to a report by Amnesty International.[8] In 2004, during a civil war in Côte d’Ivoire, the UN declared an arms-embargo on the country. Despite the embargo there is evidence, that Israeli arms and equipment was supplied to the Côte d’Ivoire after the declaration.

In 2005 after demanding the Israel Foreign and Defense ministries to stop exporting weapons from Israel to the Ivory Coast, the French government demanded information on companies selling arms to the Côte d’Ivoire, where a civil war was raging. The demand, which indirectly placed responsibility on Israeli companies for the death of French soldiers on a peace-keeping mission, was apparently raised by the French Embassy’s military attaché or a representative of its intelligence agencies in talks with Defense Ministry officials.[9] According to a Haaretz report, among the Israeli companies involved in weapons sales to the Côte d’Ivoire were Aeronautics Defense Systems, which in 2003 sold 2 Aerostar UAVs to the country and sent personnel to maintain them. The drones were delivered in 2004. The French said their soldiers were killed when drones and surveillance systems assisted the Côte d’Ivoire air force in attacking a base where they were stationed.[10] [11] In 2008, Côte d’Ivoire’s president Laurent Gbagbo said in an interview that Côte d’Ivoire purchased the Israeli drones for the purpose of surveillance.[12]

Different reports show that private Israeli businessmen were involved in different arms deals; Israeli arms dealer Moshe Rothschild sold aircraft, parts and ammunition purchased in Eastern Europe; and Israeli businessman Hezi Betzalel sold surveillance systems manufactured by the Israeli company, Verint Systems.[13] [14]

In 2016 A report of the UN Security Council on Côte d’Ivoire said Israeli companies violated the UN arms embargo on the West-African nation. According to the report, “violations of the arms embargo have involved small arms, heavy weapons and related ammunition”.[15] Also the import of night vision equipment by an Israeli company named Troya Tech Defense was mentioned. During routine inspections of ports in Côte d’Ivoire shipments of night-vision goggles and infrared thermal imaging devices were found in 2015.[16]

In 2020 visual evidence showed Ivorian special forces troops training with a variety of weapons, including Tavor rifles from Israeli company IWI.[17]

In 2018 the research organization Citizen Lab published that they found evidence of the surveillance malware Pegasus, being operated in Côte d’Ivoire.[18] The controversial spyware Pegasus was developed by the Israeli company NSO Group. Anderson Diédri, a reporter who worked on reporting in Côte d’Ivoire as part of the West Africa Leaks, an international corruption investigation, says that Pegasus’s presence in the country constitutes an “unacceptable threat to the freedom of the press, especially investigative journalism.”[19]

Tavor rifles: 3rd Airborne Unit of the Côte d’Ivoire Special Forces[20].

Aerostar drones:  were reportedly being used by Ivorian military forces.

Pegasus: was used in Côte d’Ivoire

Civil wars:

The first Ivorian civil war began in 2002. A failed coup fueled unrest and ignited civil war, leaving the country divided into the rebel-held north and the government-controlled south. Peacekeeping troops from France, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and later the United Nations (UN) created a buffer zone, known as the “zone of confidence,” between the rebels, known as the New Forces, and the Ivoirian government troops. In 2004 the already volatile situation worsened when French peacekeeping troops were accidentally killed in one of the Ivoirian bombing raids, prompting retaliatory bombing by France that in turn resulted in anti-French demonstrations and the looting and burning of French businesses, schools, and residences. In response to the escalating situation, the UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Côte d’Ivoire in an attempt to stem the influx of weapons into the region. In April 2005 peace talks held in South Africa led to a new cease-fire agreement between the Ivoirian government and the rebels, with all parties declaring an end to the war. More than 1,500 people died in the war.

In 2011 when a new crisis Ivory Coast escalated into full-scale military conflict between forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, and supporters of the internationally recognized president-elect Alassane Ouattara. After months of unsuccessful negotiations and sporadic violence between supporters of the two sides, the crisis entered a critical stage as Ouattara’s forces seized control of most of the country with the help of the UN, with Gbagbo entrenched in Abidjan, the country’s largest city. International organizations have reported numerous instances of human rights violations by both sides, in particular in the city of Duékoué where Ouattara’s forces killed hundreds of people. Overall casualties of the war are estimated around 3000. Nearly 700,000 Ivorians were displaced. The UN and French forces took military action, with the stated objective to protect their forces and civilians. France’s forces arrested Gbagbo at his residence on 11 April 2011.  [21] [22]  He faced four charges of crimes against humanity, including murder, rape, and persecution in the International Criminal Court.[23] [24]

Arms Transfers During Civil Wars:

Angola, China, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Israel sold weapons to the Ivoirian government between 2002 and 2003, according to an Amnesty International report. A 2004 UN arms embargo did little to halt the flow of weapons into the country, according to the report.[25] Spending on military hardware eventually climbed to more than 10 percent of the Côte d’Ivoire’s national budget in 2004-05.[26] Arms received both before and after the embargo went into effect were used during Ivory Coast’s 2010-11 post-election conflict.[27] [28]

Human Trafficking

Human trafficking in Ivory Coast is a long-standing problem. Although the country is used for domestic and international trafficking of children and adults, domestic trafficking of children is most prevalent. [29]Child labor in the cocoa industry is widespread, with children brought in from surrounding countries to work in poor conditions on the plantations.[30]


Journalists, human rights defenders, activists and opposition members faced arbitrary arrests, detention and deportations for expressing dissent in 2019 and 2020. Peaceful demonstrations were dispersed with the use of excessive force by security forces. On 4 October 2019, security forces killed one person and injured several others when they opened fire on protesters in Djébonoua against the arrest of an opposition politician.[31]

Côte d’Ivoire’s National Human Rights Council reported on 10th of November 2020 that 55 people were killed and 282 injured between October 31 and November 10 in the political and intercommunal violence that accompanied presidential elections. Security forces failed to adequately protect civilians and in at least one case used excessive force to disperse opposition-led protests, shooting dead at least two demonstrators and beating a man unconscious. President Alassane Ouattara was re-elected for a third term with a reported 94 percent of the vote in the controversial election, which the main opposition parties boycotted. The poll triggered confrontations between opposition and government supporters in the capital, Abidjan, and at least eight other towns, resulting in brutal street clashes fought with machetes, clubs, and hunting rifles. Since the election, Ivorian authorities have arrested a dozen opposition party members, who rejected the results and said they had formed a National Transitional Council to organize new elections.[32]

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Deal Size
2 Aerostar drones
Aeronautics Defense Systems
2003 (2004)
night vision equipment
Troya Tech Defense
inclduing night vision goggles and infrared thermal imaging devices