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Arms Sold:

A-4M Skyhawk

Reccelite

Litening

Companies:

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Germany

Introduction:

Germany and Israel hold close diplomatic and economic ties, with Germany being one of Israel’s most important economic partners in the EU.

Israel is one of five most important military exporters for Germany and provided Germany among others with anti-tank missiles and drones, like the $1 billion deal for the lease of five Heron TP drones in 2018. Israel and Germany established advanced cooperation around cyber security since 2016.

Israel - Germany Relations:

Between 2016-2018 Germany was Israel’s most important economic partner in the European Union (fourth worldwide[1]), with bilateral trade worth $7.19 Billion (2018).[2]

Israel is Germany’s second most important trade partner in the the middle east after Saudi Arabia in the first place[3].

Main Israeli export (worth around $1.52 Billion at 2016) is of chemical, electro-technological, mechanical and optical products[4].

A report by the Israeli trade office in Germany from 2014 shows that the military arms company Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) was the biggest Israeli exporter to Germany[5].

Military relations

Between 2009 and 2018 Twenty-eight percent of Israel’s arms imports came from Germany (Sipri) – mostly submarines and ground-to-air rocket systems.

Germany issued licenses for arms sales to Israel worth €1.6 billion (£1.3 b.) between 2013 and 2017.Between the years 2000-2019 Israel is one of five most important military exporters for Germany (Sipri).

Israel provides mostly anti-tank missiles systems and drones for Germany, signing a trade-deal of around €1 Billion on a leasing contract of five Heron-TP drones, drones that are capable of being armed and are planned to be used in Afghanistan. The deal includes the training of German drone-operators in Israel by the Israeli military. The deal was widely criticized in German politics by the German public.

In December 2020, the German Parliament decided to deny the armament of the Heron TP drones.[6]

Since the year 1984, 254 German soldiers and officers participated in different training and education programs of the Israeli Army. [7] In 2020 the German Armed Forces planned a joint cyber maneuver with the Israeli military, entitled “Multi-Lateral Cyber Defense Exercise 20” (MLCD20) in Germany, with units from Austria and Switzerland also taking part.

Israel also participated in relevant exercises in Germany within the framework of NATO. In April 2019, Israeli soldiers trained in “Allied Spirit 2019”[8] with the Bundeswehr in a so called “full force exercise”.[9]  German Air Force participated in 2019 in “Blue Flag” joint exercise in Israel with six Eurofighter combat aircrafts[10]. German Ministry of Defense already announced participation in the next “Blue Flag” exercise in Israel in 2021.[11]

In the last year Germany’s interest in Israeli cyber-security products grew significantly, Data compiled by Start-Up Nation Central (SNC) show a significant German presence in the Israeli technology industry[12]. At 2016, in addition to a visit of Israeli prime minister Netanyahu and other ministers a joint declaration of intent on cooperation in the field of nanotechnology and cyber-security was signed between the Director General of the Israeli ministry of Economy and Germany’s Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research[13]. In the year 2017 a Israeli company named “checkmarx” was selected to run an Israeli chapter of the “Cyber Security Council Germany (CSCG)”. Later this year “CSCG” signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with “Israel Advanced Technology Industries (IATI)”.[14]

German arms fairs with Israeli participation:

  • European Police Congress (NSO Group participated in 2020 congress)
  • GPEC (General Police Equipment Exhibition and Conference) – seven Israeli companies participated in 2018, eleven in 2020.
  • ILA Berlin Airshow – eleven Israeli companies participated in 2018 (e.g. IAI, Elbit, Rafael)[15].
  • IWA Outdoor Classics – at least two Israeli companies participated in 2019.

Usage of Israeli arms:

Rafael Litening: Used by German Air Force on aircrafts “Panavia Tornado” and “Eurofighter Typhoon”.

    • 2007: a pair of German Tornado aircraft flew reconnaissance missions over an anti-globalization demonstration during the G8 summit in Heiligendamm.[16]
    • 2007-2010: six tornados in action in Afghanistan for usage of aerial photographs and reconnaissance. [17]
    • 2014: Eurofighter Typhoon aircrafts based in Amari Air Base in Estonia as part of NATO Baltic Air Policing mission. During the mission the Eurofighters scrambled and intercepted seven Russian Air Force aircraft over the Baltic Sea.[18]

 

Spike Missiles: Used by German Special Forces Command on “Puma” armored infantry fighting vehicles.

A-4M Skyhawk-2 aircraft: Used by German Air Force as aircraft target for training in Wittmund, Germany.

Heron 1: Used by German Military in Afghanistan and Mali.

RecceLite aircraft recce system: Used on Tornado Panavia Aircraft, in use of German Air Force.

Cellebrite: German state police uses Cellebrite’s technology for crime investigation and customs service investigations.[20] Bavarian crime police unit purchased UFED from Cellebrite in 2018.[21] In 2017 Cellebrite was operated in a test-phase by the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees.[22]

Human Rights Violations:

A majority of German federal states introduced far-reaching new police powers, including extensive surveillance measures such as installing spyware to monitor mobile phones and computers or to tap into ongoing encrypted communication.

Civil society organizations continued to report discriminatory identity checks by police on members of ethnic and religious minorities.

Many states expanded in 2019 the power to use video surveillance in public places. Two states included the use of facial recognition in specific situations, such as identifying behavioral patterns used for committing crimes.

After the anti-globalization protests during the G20 summit in 2017 in Hamburg 168 preliminary proceedings were initiated against police officers for ill-treatment. By June 2019 there were zero indictments.

In regard to the abuse of migrants, refugees and stateless persons, authorities in various sttes continued to detain for up to 18 months asylum seekers whose applications were rejected pending their deportation. German authorities also deport rejected asylum seekers without advance notification. In March 2018 German authorities were holding 82 rejected asylum seekers pending deportation against the law. [19] German authorities deport asylum seekers to Afghanistan against the “non-refoulment” principle.

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
Advanced Cyber Range Training Facility
Cyberbit
2017
for IABG
Link
three Heron 1 drones
IAI
2016
lease, for use in Mali
Sipri, Link
three Heron 1 drones
IAI
2020 (2021)
$41m
extension of lease
Link
five Heron TP drones
IAI
2018
$1b
lease, armed option
Link
1500 Spike MR/LR anti tank missiles
Eurospike GMBH (Rafael)
2009 (2012-2016)
€172m
German designation: MELLS, production in Germany
Link
1000 Spike MR/LR anti tank missiles
Eurospike GMBG (Rafael)
2017 (2018-2019)
€158m
including 97 launching stations, production in Germany
Link
1500 SPike MR/LR missilesand
Eurospike GMBG (Rafael)
2019
€200m
including 132 launcher stations, production in Germany
Link
four A-4M Skyhawk airfighter bombers
IAI
2000 (2001)
sold to BAE Systems for use in Germany.
Sipri
1 Aircraft RecceLite system
Rafael
2009
For Tornado combat aircraft, for use in Afghanistan
Sipri
upgrade of airborne EW systems
Elbit
2020
for CH-53 helicopter
Link
20 Litening aircraft EO Systems
Rafael
2000 (2003-2006)
for Tornado combat aircraft
Sipri
German Army Extends Service Contract for Heron 1
IAI
Heron 1
Germany
12/7/2020
Link
Five Heron 1 drones
IAI
2009
lease, for use in Afghanistan
Sipri, Link

1. ^ https://tel-aviv.diplo.de/il-de/themen/politik/-/1608898

2. ^ https://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/en/aussenpolitik/laenderinformationen/israel-node/israel/228212)

3. ^ http://www.economy.gov.il/InternationalAffairs/EconomicReviews/Documents/Germany_Economic_Review_July_2014.pdf

4. ^ https://tel-aviv.diplo.de/il-de/themen/politik/-/1608898

5. ^ http://www.economy.gov.il/InternationalAffairs/EconomicReviews/Documents/Germany_Economic_Review_July_2014.pdf

6. ^ https://carnegieeurope.eu/strategiceurope/83558

7. ^ https://www.bpb.de/apuz/199894/israels-sicherheit-als-deutsche-staatsraeson?p=all#footnode8-8

8. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqFoNZnmdig

9. ^ https://digit.site36.net/2020/01/10/new-german-military-exercises-with-israel/

10. ^ https://www.airforce-technology.com/news/israel-exercise-blue-flag-2019/

11. ^ https://andrej-hunko.de/start/download/dokumente/1429-teilnahme-der-bundeswehr-an-der-militaeruebung-blue-flag-in-israel/file

12. ^ https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-germans-flock-to-israel-seeking-technology-1001296949

13. ^ https://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2016/Pages/Israel-and-Germany-to-cooperate-on-nanotechnology-and-cyber-security-17-Feb-2016.aspx

14. ^ https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/cybersecurity-is-bringing-germany-and-israel-closer/

15. ^ Other companies: IMC, Matechet Carmel, Mechano-Deen, Pronat, Tay Tech, Aeronautics Group, Brightstar, Cabiran,

16. ^ http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2007/06/12/German-war-jets-against-anti-G8-protesters/UPI-13951181675274/

17. ^ https://www.defencetalk.com/germany-to-withdraw-tornado-jets-from-afghanistan-28987/

18. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20141203055705/https://theaviationist.com/2014/10/28/german-typhoons-intercept-7-ruaf-planes/

19. ^ https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/GERMANY-2018-HUMAN-RIGHTS-REPORT.pdf

20. ^ https://netzpolitik.org/2018/digitale-forensik-mit-diesen-sieben-programmen-liest-die-polizei-smartphone-daten-aus/

21. ^ https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:154832-2018:TEXT:DE:HTML&tabId=1

22. ^ https://dserver.bundestag.de/btd/19/066/1906647.pdf

Germany

Germany and Israel hold close diplomatic and economic ties, with Germany

being one of Israel’s most important economic partners in the EU.

Israel is one of five most important military exporters for Germany and provided Germany

among others with anti-tank missiles and drones, like the $1 billion deal for the lease of

five Heron TP drones in 2018. Israel and Germany established advanced cooperation around cyber security since 2016.

Between 2016-2018 Germany was Israel’s most important economic partner in the European Union (fourth worldwide[1]), with bilateral trade worth $7.19 Billion (2018).[2]

Israel is Germany’s second most important trade partner in the the middle east after Saudi Arabia in the first place[3].

Main Israeli export (worth around $1.52 Billion at 2016) is of chemical, electro-technological,

mechanical and optical products[4].

A report by the Israeli trade office in Germany from 2014 shows that the military arms company “Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI)” was the biggest Israeli exporter to Germany[5].

Between 2009 and 2018 Twenty-eight percent of Israel’s arms imports came from Germany (Sipri) – mostly submarines and ground-to-air rocket systems.

Germany issued licenses for arms sales to Israel worth €1.6 billion (£1.3 b.) between 2013 and

2017.Between the years 2000-2019 Israel is one of five most important military exporters for

Germany (Sipri).

Israel provides mostly anti-tank missiles systems and drones for Germany, signing a trade-deal of around €1 Billion on a leasing contract of five Heron-TP drones, drones that are capable of being armed and are planned to be used in Afghanistan. The deal includes the training of German drone-operators in Israel by the Israeli military. The deal was widely criticized in German politics by the German public.

In December 2020, the German Parliament decided to deny the armament of the Heron TP drones.[6]

Since the year 1984, 254 German soldiers and officers participated in different training and education programs of the Israeli Army. [7]  In 2020 the German Armed Forces planned a joint cybermaneuver with the Israeli military, entitled “Multi-Lateral Cyber Defense Exercise 20” (MLCD20) in Germany, with units from Austria and Switzerland also taking part.

Israel also participated in relevant exercises in Germany within the framework of NATO. In April 2019, Israeli soldiers trained in “Allied Spirit 2019”[8] with the Bundeswehr in a so called “full force exercise”.[9]  German Air Force participated in 2019 in “Blue Flag” joint exercise in Israel with six Eurofighter combat aircrafts[10]. German Ministry of Defense already announced participation in the next “Blue Flag” exercise in Israel in 2021.[11]

In the last year Germany’s interest in Israeli cyber-security products grew significantly, Data compiled by Start-Up Nation Central (SNC) show a significant German presence in the Israeli technology industry[12]. At 2016, in addition to a visit of Israeli prime minister Netanyahu and other ministers a joint decleration of intent on cooperation in the field of nanotechnology and cyber-security was signed between the Director General of the Israeli ministry of Economy and Germany’s Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research[13]. In the year 2017 a Israeli company named “checkmarx” was selected to run an Israeli chapter of the “Cyber Security Council Germany (CSCG)”. Later this year “CSCG” signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with “Israel Advanced Technology Industries (IATI)”.[14]

German arms fairs with Israeli participation:

  • European Police Congress (NSO participated in 2020 congress)
  • GPEC (General Police Equipment Exhibition and Conference) – seven Israeli companies participated in 2018, eleven in 2020.
  • ILA Berlin Airshow – eleven Israeli companies participated in 2018 (e.g. IAI, Elbit, Rafael)[15].
  • IWA Outdoor Classics – at least two Israeli companies participated in 2019.
  • Rafael Litening: Used by German Air Force on aircrafts “Panavia Tornado” and “Eurofighter Typhoon”.
    • 2007: a pair of german Tornado aircraft flew reconnaissance missions over an anti-globalisation demonstration during the G8 summit in Heiligendamm.[16]
    • 2007-2010: six tornados in action in Afghanistan for usage of aerial photographs and reconnaissance. [17]
    • 2014: Eurofighter Typhoon aircrafts based in Amari Air Base in Estonia as part of NATO Baltic Air Policing mission. During the mission the Eurofighters scrambled and intercepted seven Russian Air Force aircraft over the Baltic Sea.[18]
  • Spike Missiles: Used by German Special Forces Command on “Puma” armoured infantry fighting vehicles.
  • A-4M Skyhawk-2 aircraft: Used by German Air Force as aircraft target for training in Wittmund, Germany.
  • Heron 1: Used by German Military in Afghanistan and Mali.
  • RecceLite aircraft recce system: Used on Tornado Panavia Aircraft, in use of German Air Force.

A majority of German federal states introduced far-reaching new police powers, including extensive surveillance measures such as installing spyware to monitor mobile phones and computers or to tap into ongoing encrypted communication.

Civil society organizations continued to report discriminatory identity checks by police on members of ethnic and religious minorities.

Many states expanded in 2019 the power to use video surveillance in public places. Two states included the use of facial recognition in specific situations, such as identifying behavioral patterns used for committing crimes.

After the anti-globalization protests during the G20 summit in 2017 in Hamburg 168 preliminary proceedings were initiated against police officers for ill-treatment. By June 2019 there were zero indictments.

In regard to the abuse of migrants, refugees and stateless persons, authorities in various sttes continued to detain for up to 18 months asylum seekers whose applications were rejected pending their deportation. German authorities also deport rejected asylum seekers without advance notification. In March 2018 German authorities were holding 82 rejected asylum seekers pending deportation against the law. [19] German authorities deport asylum seekers to Afghanistan against the “non-refoulment” principle.

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
Advanced Cyber Range Training Facility
Cyberbit
2017
for IABG
Link
three Heron 1 drones
IAI
2016
lease, for use in Mali
Sipri, Link
three Heron 1 drones
IAI
2020 (2021)
$41m
extension of lease
Link
five Heron TP drones
IAI
2018
$1b
lease, armed option
Link
1500 Spike MR/LR anti tank missiles
Eurospike GMBH (Rafael)
2009 (2012-2016)
€172m
German designation: MELLS, production in Germany
Link
1000 Spike MR/LR anti tank missiles
Eurospike GMBG (Rafael)
2017 (2018-2019)
€158m
including 97 launching stations, production in Germany
Link
1500 SPike MR/LR missilesand
Eurospike GMBG (Rafael)
2019
€200m
including 132 launcher stations, production in Germany
Link
four A-4M Skyhawk airfighter bombers
IAI
2000 (2001)
sold to BAE Systems for use in Germany.
Sipri
1 Aircraft RecceLite system
Rafael
2009
For Tornado combat aircraft, for use in Afghanistan
Sipri
upgrade of airborne EW systems
Elbit
2020
for CH-53 helicopter
Link
20 Litening aircraft EO Systems
Rafael
2000 (2003-2006)
for Tornado combat aircraft
Sipri
German Army Extends Service Contract for Heron 1
IAI
Heron 1
Germany
12/7/2020
Link
Five Heron 1 drones
IAI
2009
lease, for use in Afghanistan
Sipri, Link