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Arms Sold:

Artemis UAS

ELSAT 2100

SPS-65

ECM payload

Prison Security System

Companies:

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Canada

Introduction:

Canada and Israel maintain close cooperation in areas of Industry, Research and Development, Security and Military. Few economic and diplomatic agreements were signed between the two countries and joint institutions and forums were established. Israel supplied Canada with a wide range of arms. Among others drones, radars, surveillance systems, prison security systems and cyber security.

Israel – Canada Relations:

While Israel remains a relatively insignificant trade partner for Canada in overall terms, merchandise trade volumes between the two countries stand at $1.9 billion in 2018. Canadian merchandise imports from Israel stand at $1,3 billion (2016-2018 average) and Canadian service imports from Israel at $351 million in 2017. Canada’s top imports from Israel (2016-2018 average) are industrial machinery ($191m), Electrical and electronic equipment ($162m), Scientific instruments ($135.6m).

Canada and Israel signed a Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA) in 1996 and was amended in 2015.

The Canada-Israel Industrial Research and Development Fund (CIIRDF) The CIIRDF was established through a “Memorandum of Understanding on Bilateral Cooperation in Private Sector Industrial R & D Entered into by The Government of Israel and The Government of Canada” that was signed in August 1994 and was renewed in 2004. CIIRDF has financed more than 110 bilateral technology partnerships that engage more than 200 Canadian and Israeli companies. It enabled the joint development of more than 60 products since 2000. Another important institutionalized framework for cooperation is provided by the Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA), which is a goods-only based agreement and Canada’s only FTA with a partner outside the Western hemisphere.[1]

Military Relations:

Despite the generally understated and secretive nature of Canada-Israel security links, the situation began to change under Prime Minister Paul Martin (2003-2005), who actively began fostering closer ties with Israel. A number of important mutual visits by Canadian and Israel security establishment representatives took place that year:

  • Delegation from Canadian Space Agency (CSA) visited Israel and signed a “Technology and Science Cooperative Agreement” with the Israel Space Agency (ISA).
  • More than 70 police-chiefs visited Israel in 2005.
  • The Israeli Air Force took part in 2005 in Canada’s annual “Maple Flag” exercise.
  • A number of senior Canadian cabinet members visited Israel between 2006-2019 in order to attend specialized “security conferences”, among them: Foreign Affairs Minister, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency.

A large amount of arms and security technologies were supplied by Israel to Canada since 2001.

In 2008 the “Declaration of Intent on public safety” was signed in Tel Aviv. The agreement outlines key areas of cooperation.

A number of CIIRDF projects have focused on the development of technologies relevant to the Homeland Security sector, including in the fields of surveillance and cutting-edge robotics. Israel companies that are involved in partnerships with Canadian companies: InfoWarp Systems, IAI Lahav, ODF Optronics, Visual Defence, Opteam X, Hi-G-Tek, A.G.M, Green Vision Systems, OzVision, NICE Systems.

In 2017 the Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA) concluded an agreement with Israel Advanced Technology Industries for their members to collaborate in areas of joint interest, including in cybersecurity. [2]

In 2018 the Royal Bank of Canada invested $2 million in research at Ben Gurion University’s Cybersecurity Research Center.[3]

According to reports, Vivian Bercovici, Canada’s former ambassador to Israel, worked for the Israeli intelligence firm Black Cube after her diplomatic tenure ended.[14]

In 2020 Canada made a $36m deal with Elbit to purchase Hermes-900 drones for maritime activity in Canada’s Arctic. The Hermes 900 StarLiner, a civilian version of Elbit’s medium-altitude long-endurance military drones, will join Transport Canada National Aerial Surveillance Program aircraft fleet. It is expected to be delivered by December 2022. In addition to the drone itself, the $36.16‑million contract includes communication links, ground control stations, sensor packages, training and the optional purchase of spare parts. [13]

Arms Fairs:

CANSEC 2019 – Elbit

CANSEC 2018 – Elbit, Embassy of Israel

Usage of Israeli Arms:

  • Heron UAV – In use by Royal Canadian Air Force,
    • Used in Kandahar in Afghanistan since January 2009.[4]
  • Skylark mini-UAV – In use be Royal Canadian Air Force. Designated: CU-168, 5 in service since 2006
  • EL/M-2084 multi-mission radar – in Canadian service since 2017
  • EL/M-2022A advanced surveillance sensors – are used on Canada’s C295 MSA Aircraft for the detection, localisation, classification and tracking of targets over water and land.
  • ELSAT 2100 SATCOM – In use of Canadian Armed Forces since 2014
  • SPS-65 RLWR – in use on CH146 Griffon helicopter, Royal Canadian Air Force.
  • Elbit’s Off board Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Payload – supplied for the Hammerhead Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV) of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) as part of its Naval Off-Board Anti-Missile Active Decoy (NOMAD) Program.
  • Pegasus – according to CitizenlabPegasus infections were identified in Canada between 2016-2018.

Human Rights Violations

In March and April 2018, Citizen Lab, a University of Toronto-based technical research group, published two reports alleging that Canadian-made web-filtering technology is being exported to several repressive governments around the world where it is used to censor political speech, news, and dissident websites, and to block searches for keywords related to LGBT identities.[5]

Despite widespread evidence of abuses in Yemen and Canadian policy guidelines that urge close control over exports of military equipment to countries with a record of human rights violations, the Canadian government continues to allow Canadian arms manufacturing companies to sell arms to the Saudi-led coalition. Human Rights Watch has documented repeated laws of war violations by the coalition in Yemen, some likely war crimes.[6]

In September 2019, the Canadian government acceded to the international Arms Trade Treaty and faced increasing pressure from a coalition of civil society organizations to end its $15-billion arms contract with Saudi Arabia and release the findings of its 2018 review of military export permits to the kingdom.[7] Canada has yet to suspend existing arms sales to the Saudi-led coalition despite policy guidelines urging close control over exports of military equipment to countries with a record of human rights violations[8]. The decision is paving the way for the approval of 48 pending export permits. [9]

National security reforms in June 2019 in Canada established a National Security and Intelligence Review Agency, strengthened oversight of Canada’s no-fly list and reversed some restrictive measures adopted in 2015, but also granted new mass surveillance powers to intelligence agencies.[10]

Despite guidelines requiring that children be held in immigration detention only in “extremely limited circumstances” or as a “last resort” under Canada’s immigration law, children are still detained in immigration detention in Canada. In 2018-19, 118 children were detained or housed in a detention center. While fewer children were held overall compared to 2017-18, the average time they spent in detention facilities rose.[11] Despite the introduction of a National Immigration Detention Framework that aims to reduce the use of jails and improve detention conditions, Canada continues to confine many immigration-detainees in jails. According to the CBSA, 7,212 immigration-detainees were detained in holding centers in 2018-19, up from 6,609 the previous year.[12]

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
Development of Artemis UAS (Heron TP based) long distance UAV
IAI
2021-2022
IAI in cooperation with canadian company
Link
3 Heron UAVs
IAI
2008
$81m
“Noctua Project” – lease for usage in Afghanistan
Sipri
10 EL/M-2084 Air search radars
IAI
2015 (2017-2019)
$187m
production in Canada. MRR program
Sipri
16 EL/M-2022 MP aircraft radars
IAI
2017 (2019)
For C-295W maritime patrol aircrafts
Sipri
ELSAT 2100 SATCOM Satellite on-the-move communication (SOTM) systems
Elbit
2020
for Canadian Armed Forces in a deal with Rheinmetall Canada
Link
ELSAT 2100 Satellite-on-the-Move (SOTM) systems
Elbit
2014
for use by the Canadian Armed Forces.
Link
Skylark mini UAVs
Elbit
2006
Sipri
for use in Afghanistan
Link
17 SPS-65 RLWR electronic combat systems
Elisra Group
2001
$50m
for CH146 Griffon helicopter defense to canadian army
Link
Electric Counter Measure (ECM) Payload
Elbit
2019
for Canadian Navy’s NOMAD Program
Link
Preperation of Diamond Aircraft DA42 to unmanned D-Jet Dominator-2
Israel Aeronautics
2008
Sipri
Sipri
Link
Prison security systems
Senstar (Magal)
2001-2009
$10.45m
for Canadian Securities Course (CSC)
Link

Canada

Canada and Israel maintain close cooperation in areas of Industry, Research and Development, Security and Military. Few economic and diplomatic agreements were signed between the two countries and joint institutions and forums were established. Israel supplied Canada with a wide range of arms. Among others drones, radars, surveillance systems, prison security systems and cyber security.

While Israel remains a relatively insignificant trade partner for Canada in overall terms, merchandise trade volumes between the two countries stand at $1.9 billion in 2018. Canadian merchandise imports from Israel stand at $1,3 billion (2016-2018 average) and Canadian service imports from Israel at $351 million in 2017. Canada’s top imports from Israel (2016-2018 average) are industrial machinery ($191m), Electrical and electronic equipment ($162m), Scientific instruments ($135.6m).

Canada and Israel signed a Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA) in 1996 and was amended in 2015.

The Canada-Israel Industrial Research and Development Fund (CIIRDF) The CIIRDF was established through a “Memorandum of Understanding on Bilateral Cooperation in Private Sector Industrial R & D Entered into by The Government of Israel and The Government of Canada” that was signed in August 1994 and was renewed in 2004. CIIRDF has financed more than 110 bilateral technology partnerships that engage more than 200 Canadian and Israeli companies. It enabled the joint development of more than 60 products since 2000. Another important institutionalized framework for cooperation is provided by the Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement (CIFTA), which is a goods-only based agreement and Canada’s only FTA with a partner outside the Western hemisphere.[1]

Despite the generally understated and secretive nature of Canada-Israel security links, the situation began to change under Prime Minister Paul Martin (2003-2005), who actively began fostering closer ties with Israel. A number of important mutual visits by Canadian and Israel security establishment representatives took place that year:

  • Delegation from Canadian Space Agency (CSA) visited Israel and signed a “Technology and Science Cooperative Agreement” with the Israel Space Agency (ISA).
  • More than 70 police-chiefs visited Israel in 2005.
  • The Israeli Air Force took part in 2005 in Canada’s annual “Maple Flag” exercise.
  • A number of senior Canadian cabinet members visited Israel between 2006-2019 in order to attend specialized “security conferences”, among them: Foreign Affairs Minister, Minister of Public Safety and Emergency.

A large amount of arms and security technologies were supplied by Israel to Canada since 2001.

In 2008 the “Declaration of Intent on public safety” was signed in Tel Aviv. The agreement outlines key areas of cooperation.

A number of CIIRDF projects have focused on the development of technologies relevant to the Homeland Security sector, including in the fields of surveillance and cutting-edge robotics. Israel companies that are involved in partnerships with Canadian companies: InfoWarp Systems, IAI Lahav, ODF Optronics, Visual Defence, Opteam X, Hi-G-Tek, A.G.M, Green Vision Systems, OzVision, NICE Systems.

In 2017 the Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA) concluded an agreement with Israel Advanced Technology Industries for their members to collaborate in areas of joint interest, including in cybersecurity. [2]

In 2018 the Royal Bank of Canada invested $2 million in research at Ben Gurion University’s Cybersecurity Research Center.[3] *Globes

Arms Fairs:

CANSEC 2019 – Elbit

CANSEC 2018 – Elbit, Embassy of Israel

  • Heron UAV – In use by Royal Canadian Air Force,
    • Used in Kandahar in Afghanistan since January 2009.[4]
  • Skylark – In use be Royal Canadian Air Force. Designated: CU-168, 5 in service since 2006
  • EL/M-2084 multi-mission radar in Canadian service since 2017
  • EL/M-2022A advanced surveillance sensors are used on Canada’s C295 MSA Aircraft for the detection, localisation, classification and tracking of targets over water and land.
  • ELSAT 2100 SATCOM – In use of Canadian Armed Forces since 2014
  • SPS-65 RLWR – in use on CH146 Griffon helicopter, Royal Canadian Air Force.
  • Elbit’s Off board Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Payload – supplied for the Hammerhead Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV) of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) as part of its Naval Off-Board Anti-Missile Active Decoy (NOMAD) Program.

In March and April 2018, Citizen Lab, a University of Toronto-based technical research group, published two reports alleging that Canadian-made web-filtering technology is being exported to several repressive governments around the world where it is used to censor political speech, news, and dissident websites, and to block searches for keywords related to LGBT identities.[5]

Despite widespread evidence of abuses in Yemen and Canadian policy guidelines that urge close control over exports of military equipment to countries with a record of human rights violations, the Canadian government continues to allow Canadian arms manufacturing companies to sell arms to the Saudi-led coalition. Human Rights Watch has documented repeated laws of war violations by the coalition in Yemen, some likely war crimes.[6]

In September 2019, the Canadian government acceded to the international Arms Trade Treaty and faced increasing pressure from a coalition of civil society organizations to end its $15-billion arms contract with Saudi Arabia and release the findings of its 2018 review of military export permits to the kingdom.[7] Canada has yet to suspend existing arms sales to the Saudi-led coalition despite policy guidelines urging close control over exports of military equipment to countries with a record of human rights violations[8]. The decision is paving the way for the approval of 48 pending export permits. [9]

National security reforms in June 2019 in Canada established a National Security and Intelligence Review Agency, strengthened oversight of Canada’s no-fly list and reversed some restrictive measures adopted in 2015, but also granted new mass surveillance powers to intelligence agencies.[10]

Despite guidelines requiring that children be held in immigration detention only in “extremely limited circumstances” or as a “last resort” under Canada’s immigration law, children are still detained in immigration detention in Canada. In 2018-19, 118 children were detained or housed in a detention center. While fewer children were held overall compared to 2017-18, the average time they spent in detention facilities rose.[11] Despite the introduction of a National Immigration Detention Framework that aims to reduce the use of jails and improve detention conditions, Canada continues to confine many immigration-detainees in jails. According to the CBSA,  7,212 immigration-detainees were detained in holding centers in 2018-19, up from 6,609 the previous year.[12]

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
Development of Artemis UAS (Heron TP based) long distance UAV
IAI
2021-2022
IAI in cooperation with canadian company
Link
3 Heron UAVs
IAI
2008
$81m
“Noctua Project” – lease for usage in Afghanistan
Sipri
10 EL/M-2084 Air search radars
IAI
2015 (2017-2019)
$187m
production in Canada. MRR program
Sipri
16 EL/M-2022 MP aircraft radars
IAI
2017 (2019)
For C-295W maritime patrol aircrafts
Sipri
ELSAT 2100 SATCOM Satellite on-the-move communication (SOTM) systems
Elbit
2020
for Canadian Armed Forces in a deal with Rheinmetall Canada
Link
ELSAT 2100 Satellite-on-the-Move (SOTM) systems
Elbit
2014
for use by the Canadian Armed Forces.
Link
Skylark mini UAVs
Elbit
2006
Sipri
for use in Afghanistan
Link
17 SPS-65 RLWR electronic combat systems
Elisra Group
2001
$50m
for CH146 Griffon helicopter defense to canadian army
Link
Electric Counter Measure (ECM) Payload
Elbit
2019
for Canadian Navy’s NOMAD Program
Link
Preperation of Diamond Aircraft DA42 to unmanned D-Jet Dominator-2
Israel Aeronautics
2008
Sipri
Sipri
Link
Prison security systems
Senstar (Magal)
2001-2009
$10.45m
for Canadian Securities Course (CSC)
Link