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Arms Sold:

Bird-Eye 400

I-View

Searcher-2

Companies:

Skip to:

Russia

Introduction:

 

Israel and Russia maintain close economic relations with $5 billion worth trade between the two countries in 2019. Military relations are less significant and rely mostly on operational coordination and less on the supply of arms. In 2010 Russia and Israel signed a five-year military agreement. Russia mainly acquired drones from Israel, including the training of the Russian drone-pilots in Israel.

Israel – Russia Relations:

 

Russia has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Haifa. Israel has an embassy in Moscow and a consulate-general in Yekaterinburg.

Trade between Israel and Russia exceeded $5 Billion in both 2018 and 2019. In October 2019, Russian president Putin announced that his country is working on a possible free trade zone with Israel[1].

As of 2014, Russia was Israel’s largest supplier of crude oil (alongside Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan). As of 2016, Russia was Israel’s main supplier of oil.

In 2011, Israel and Russia signed the Space Cooperation Agreement. The framework agreement is meant to develop joint research programs and other collaborations in areas like astrophysical and planetary research, space biology and medicine, navigational satellites and launch services and technology.[2]

In the field of technology incubators, collaborative projects are being established between the two states. Rusnano, the Russian government’s vehicle for investments in nanotechnology, has established a branch in Israel, with the aim of setting up a fund for investment in Israeli nanotechnology ventures.[3] Similarly, Russia’s Skolkovo innovation center has established a branch in Israel, the Israel-Skolkovo Gateway/Center (IsraelSK), which involves raising private capital and government grants leveraging for Israeli and Russian start-up companies.[4]

In 2018, Yandex opened a computer science school in Israel for local students, in collaboration with Tel Aviv University’s department of Computer Science. The school subsidized by Yandex, which will teach 50 Israeli students a year, will focus primarily on “machine learning”.[5]

Of all areas, the military aspect of the bilateral relationship is the least developed.

Military Relations:

 

In 2009, there were two deals for the Russian purchase of Israeli UAVs from Israel Aerospace Industries, totaling $100 million. This purchase was followed by a second, $400 million deal, in which UAVs of several different types were assembled in Russia from 2010-2012. Allegedly, the Russian military was impressed by the Israeli-made UAVs that Georgia operated in the 2008 Russo-Georgian war. By purchasing similar drones, Russia hoped to close the technological gap revealed in the conflict.. The deal signed between Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and the Russian government through Oboronprom, a Russian defense company, was much more than an arms sale, and involved a five-year direct military cooperation with Israel training at least 50 Russian officers on UAV operations in Tel-Aviv.[6] Other reports cited the deal as a quid pro quo for Russian forbearance on advanced arms sales to Iran and Syria.[7]

In 2014-2015, the two parties negotiated another deal, but it fell through, allegedly due to American sensitivities about the use of drones in Ukraine. Cooperation on drone technology has since ceased, and there have been no significant military sales. The very limited amount of military exports from Israel to Russia (several tens of millions of dollars per year) comprises of non-lethal, low-tech items. [8]

The most significant military cooperation between the two countries is a coordination and de-escalation apparatus created in 2015 after the Russian intervention in Syria.[9] In 2018 Russian sources reported that the apparatus consists of an operational hotline between the Russian air force command at Khmeimim in Syria and the Israel Air Force operations center in Tel Aviv. The hotline is used to exchange urgent information and to schedule military-to-military meetings between senior officers. There is also direct communication between the Russian and Israeli deputy chiefs of staff and regular communication at multiple levels of the respective military establishments.[10]

According to diplomatic cables released by Wikileaks, American officials believed that Russia and Israel had previously traded intelligence on Iranian and Georgian technology with Israel providing “data link codes” on Georgia’s Israeli-made Hermes 450 drones. According to the document, American officials believed that Russia provided information on the defenses of Iran’s nuclear facilities in exchange.[11]

Arms Fairs:

MAKS 2019 – Israel company “ALD” participated.

Usage of Israeli Arms:

 

Bird Eye 400, I-View : authorities of Russian Federation

Searcher II: used as Forpost (Форпост) licensed copy by authorities of Russian Federation. In May 2015, Ukrain downed a searcher II drone that was operated by Russia. [12] In July 2018 a Russian “Forpost” UAV was found on a field close to the village of Barqah, about 12 kilometres far from the Israeli side of the Golan heights (Syria).

Human Rights Violations:

 

According to international human rights organizations and independent domestic media outlets, the following were among the common violations of human rights in Russia:

deaths in custody and the widespread and systematic torture of persons in custody by police, security forces and prison guards; hazing in the Russian Army; neglect and cruelty in Russian orphanages and violations of children’s rights. According to Amnesty International there was discrimination, racism, and murders of members of ethnic minorities. In the years since 1992 at least 50 journalists have been killed, some in armed conflict situations, but others were the target of contract killings. Chechnya was a problem apart and during the Second Chechen War, from September 1999 to 2005, there were numerous instances of summary execution and forced disappearance of civilians there.[

In 2019 Russia’s human rights record continued to deteriorate, with the rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly consistently restricted, in law and practice. Those attempting to exercise these rights faced reprisals, ranging from harassment to police ill-treatment, arbitrary arrest, heavy fines and in some cases criminal prosecution and imprisonment. Hundreds of Jehovah’s Witnesses were persecuted for their faith. Other vulnerable minorities also faced discrimination and persecution. Counter-terrorism provisions were widely used to target dissent across the country and in Crimea. Torture remained pervasive, as did impunity for its perpetrators. Violence against women remained widespread and inadequately addressed. Refugees were forcibly returned to destinations where they were at risk of torture.

Crimea: The human rights situation in Russia-occupied Crimea continued to deteriorate. Numerous rights, including freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association, remained severely restricted. Prominent members of the Crimean Tatar community, pro-Ukrainian activists and any outspoken critics of the de facto authorities were subjected to harassment, intimidation, or politically motivated prosecution. De facto authorities in Crimea continued to harass Crimean Tatars. Since 2015, Russian authorities have prosecuted at least 63 Crimean Tatars on trumped-up terrorism charges and handed down up to 17- year sentences. Independent media and journalists were unable to operate in Crimea, and a growing number of online media resources were blocked.

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
10 Searcher II drones
IAI
2010 (2013-2014)
$400m
assembled and produced in Russia (Russian designation- Forpost)
Sipri, https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/politics-and-diplomacy/report-russia-purchased-ten-israeli-drones-415575
10 Searcher II drones
IAI
2015
$320m
https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/politics-and-diplomacy/report-russia-purchased-ten-israeli-drones-415575
Birdeye 400 and Searcher II drones
IAI
2009 (2011)
$54m
Sipri, https://www.uasvision.com/2017/03/24/russia-developing-new-uav-based-on-iai-searcher/
UAV components
IAI
2010
https:// www.defenseindustrydaily.com/israel-and-russia-in-uav-deal-05459/

1. ^ https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/russia-israel-trade-exceeds-5-billion-for-second-year-running-615642

2. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/israel-russia-sign-space-agency-cooperation-agreement-1.352220

3. ^ http://marchmontnews.com/Finance-Business/Central-regions/20220-Rusnano-Israel-help-Russias-Rusnano-cultivate-Israeli-nanotech-developers.html

4. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110930125711/http://www.israelsk.com/

5. ^ http://9tv.co.il/news/2018/07/24/260177.html

6. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/analysis-drone-deals-heighten-military-ties-between-israel-and-russia

7. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/analysis-drone-deals-heighten-military-ties-between-israel-and-russia

8. ^ https://www.fpri.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/krasna2018.pdf

9. ^ https://www.fpri.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/krasna2018.pdf

10. ^ https://www.fpri.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/krasna2018.pdf

11. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/analysis-drone-deals-heighten-military-ties-between-israel-and-russia

12. ^ http://euromaidanpress.com/2015/05/14/russian-owned-israeli-uav-downed-in-ukraine/

Russia

Israel and Russia maintain close economic relations with $5 billion worth trade between the two countries in 2019. Military relations are less significant and rely mostly on operational coordination and less on the supply of arms. In 2010 Russia and Israel signed a five-year military agreement. Russia mainly acquired drones from Israel, including the training of the Russian drone-pilots in Israel.

Russia has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consulate in Haifa. Israel has an embassy in Moscow and a consulate-general in Yekaterinburg.

Trade between Israel and Russia exceeded $5 Billion in both 2018 and 2019. In October 2019, Russian president Putin announced that his country is working on a possible free trade zone with Israel[1].

As of 2014, Russia was Israel’s largest supplier of crude oil (alongside Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan). As of 2016, Russia was Israel’s main supplier of oil.

In 2011, Israel and Russia signed the Space Cooperation Agreement. The framework agreement is meant to develop joint research programs and other collaborations in areas like astrophysical and planetary research, space biology and medicine, navigational satellites and launch services and technology.[2]

In the field of technology incubators, collaborative projects are being established between the two states. Rusnano, the Russian government’s vehicle for investments in nanotechnology, has established a branch in Israel, with the aim of setting up a fund for investment in Israeli nanotechnology ventures.[3] Similarly, Russia’s Skolkovo innovation center has established a branch in Israel, the Israel-Skolkovo Gateway/Center (IsraelSK), which involves raising private capital and government grants leveraging for Israeli and Russian start-up companies.[4]

In 2018, Yandex opened a computer science school in Israel for local students, in collaboration with Tel Aviv University’s department of Computer Science. The school subsidized by Yandex, which will teach 50 Israeli students a year, will focus primarily on “machine learning”.[5]

Of all areas, the military aspect of the bilateral relationship is the least developed.

In 2009, there were two deals for the Russian purchase of Israeli UAVs from Israel Aerospace Industries, totaling $100 million. This purchase was followed by a second, $400 million deal, in which UAVs of several different types were assembled in Russia from 2010-2012. Allegedly, the Russian military was impressed by the Israeli-made UAVs that Georgia operated in the 2008 Russo-Georgian war. By purchasing similar drones, Russia hoped to close the technological gap revealed in the conflict.. The deal signed between Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and the Russian government through Oboronprom, a Russian defense company, was much more than an arms sale, and involved a five-year direct military cooperation with Israel training at least 50 Russian officers on UAV operations in Tel-Aviv.[6] Other reports cited the deal as a quid pro quo for Russian forbearance on advanced arms sales to Iran and Syria.[7]

In 2014-2015, the two parties negotiated another deal, but it fell through, allegedly due to American sensitivities about the use of drones in Ukraine. Cooperation on drone technology has since ceased, and there have been no significant military sales. The very limited amount of military exports from Israel to Russia (several tens of millions of dollars per year) comprises of non-lethal, low-tech items. [8]

The most significant military cooperation between the two countries is a coordination and de-escalation apparatus created in 2015 after the Russian intervention in Syria.[9] In 2018 Russian sources reported that the apparatus consists of an operational hotline between the Russian air force command at Khmeimim in Syria and the Israel Air Force operations center in Tel Aviv. The hotline is used to exchange urgent information and to schedule military-to-military meetings between senior officers. There is also direct communication between the Russian and Israeli deputy chiefs of staff and regular communication at multiple levels of the respective military establishments.[10]

According to diplomatic cables released by Wikileaks, American officials believed that Russia and Israel had previously traded intelligence on Iranian and Georgian technology with Israel providing “data link codes” on Georgia’s Israeli-made Hermes 450 drones. According to the document, American officials believed that Russia provided information on the defenses of Iran’s nuclear facilities in exchange.[11]

Arms Fairs:

MAKS 2019 – Israel company “ALD” participated.

Bird Eye 400, I-View : authorities of Russian Federation

Searcher II: used as Forpost (Форпост) licensed copy by authorities of Russian Federation. In May 2015, Ukrain downed a searcher II drone that was operated by Russia. [12] In July 2018 a Russian “Forpost” UAV was found on a field close to the village of Barqah, about 12 kilometres far from the Israeli side of the Golan heights (Syria).

According to international human rights organizations and independent domestic media outlets, the following were among the common violations of human rights in Russia:

deaths in custody and the widespread and systematic torture of persons in custody by police, security forces and prison guards; hazing in the Russian Army; neglect and cruelty in Russian orphanages and violations of children’s rights. According to Amnesty International there was discrimination, racism, and murders of members of ethnic minorities. In the years since 1992 at least 50 journalists have been killed, some in armed conflict situations, but others were the target of contract killings. Chechnya was a problem apart and during the Second Chechen War, from September 1999 to 2005, there were numerous instances of summary execution and forced disappearance of civilians there.[

In 2019 Russia’s human rights record continued to deteriorate, with the rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly consistently restricted, in law and practice. Those attempting to exercise these rights faced reprisals, ranging from harassment to police ill-treatment, arbitrary arrest, heavy fines and in some cases criminal prosecution and imprisonment. Hundreds of Jehovah’s Witnesses were persecuted for their faith. Other vulnerable minorities also faced discrimination and persecution. Counter-terrorism provisions were widely used to target dissent across the country and in Crimea. Torture remained pervasive, as did impunity for its perpetrators. Violence against women remained widespread and inadequately addressed. Refugees were forcibly returned to destinations where they were at risk of torture.

Crimea: The human rights situation in Russia-occupied Crimea continued to deteriorate. Numerous rights, including freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association, remained severely restricted. Prominent members of the Crimean Tatar community, pro-Ukrainian activists and any outspoken critics of the de facto authorities were subjected to harassment, intimidation, or politically motivated prosecution. De facto authorities in Crimea continued to harass Crimean Tatars. Since 2015, Russian authorities have prosecuted at least 63 Crimean Tatars on trumped-up terrorism charges and handed down up to 17- year sentences. Independent media and journalists were unable to operate in Crimea, and a growing number of online media resources were blocked.