South Sudan

Arms Sold:

Additional Arms:
Verint Spyware

Companies:

Additional Companies:
IMI, Verint Systems

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South Sudan

Introduction

Israel made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure in South Sudan. Since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan, although the U.S. and U.N. passed an arms embargo on the country. There is evidence that Israeli assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces were used in the civil war. Since the war began in 2013, 50,000 people have been killed, and more than 4 million people have fled.

Israel – South Sudan Relations

Israel and South Sudan established full diplomatic ties directly after South Sudan became an independent state in July 2011. Since the 1960’s Israel has been fighting a secret war in South Sudan by supporting the rebels’ struggle to break free from Khartoum’s tyranny. In 2011 a referendum was held in South Sudan following massive pressure from the international community. Ninety-nine percent of residents voted in favor of breaking away from Khartoum, and on July 9th of the same year South Sudan became an independent country. The State of Israel was one of the first countries to recognize the new state, and in December 2011 Salva Kiir Mayardit, president of South Sudan, came to Israel on official visit.[1]South Sudan President Visits Israel for First Time For Israel, an independent South Sudan was a golden opportunity to further its security and economic interests in the area, and it subsequently made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure there.[2]Israeli companies discover South Sudan

In July 2012, Israel Military Industries (IMI) signed a pact to cooperate on water infrastructure and technology development with South Sudan.[3]Israel signs 1st agreement, on water, with S. Sudan

In 2013 South Sudan signed an agreement with several Israeli oil companies.[4]South Sudan signs oil deal with Israel

Israel exports to South Sudan was US$450k during 2014 according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. The exported goods were machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers and electronic equipment.[5]Israel Exports to South Sudan

Military Relations

Since 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan. A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[6]How Israel is sowing the seeds of a deadly war in South Sudan The UN report also revealed that Israel sold wiretapping equipment from the Israeli company Verint Systems to South Sudan.[7]Israel Supplies South Sudan Government With Wiretapping Equipment [8]Israel Spy industry helps dictators around the world persecute gays and dissidents

In 2011, South Sudan’s intelligence service imported surveillance systems from Israel, including devices that could be fixed on the tower and base stations of telecommunications companies.[9]“What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service

Between 2012-2016, the South Sudanese government acquired military weapons and multiple surveillance and communication interception equipment from Israel and other countries. During this period NSS officers were also receiving combat and intelligence training from the Israeli Mossad.[10]“What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service

Israeli weapons companies sold $150m worth of lethal weapons through a farming project called “Green Horizon”. The Israeli company involved is Global CSTGlobal CST is the defense, consulting, and contracting wing of the Global Group, which is owned and operated by Israel Ziv, a former head of Israeli Army.[11]OCCRP : Sam Mednick : Sprouting Weapons of War  According to the US Treasury Department, Ziv used an agricultural company “as a cover for the sale of approximately $150 million worth of weapons to the government, including rifles, grenade launchers and shoulder-fired rockets.”[12]US Treasury sanctions three individuals for their roles in the conflict in South SudanThe statement also stated that Ziv reportedly prepared to organize attacks by mercenaries on South Sudanese oil fields and infrastructure, in an effort to “create a problem that only his company and affiliates could solve”.[13]U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Former Israeli General for Arms Trade with South Sudan

The government, through the NSS and army, acquired key military and surveillance equipment in 2014 from Israel including wiretapping devices and aerial drones and cameras, further enabling this abusive targeting in the country.[14]“What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service

In 2017 South Sudan’s authorities published the purchase of Israeli surveillance drones and security cameras. South Sudan’s president Silva Kiir said at a speech, that he holt at a drone control center in Israel: “two drones and 11 cameras will be deployed by Israeli company Global Group”. The exact worth of the deal is unknown.[15]South Sudan spends millions on Israel security devices [16]Broke South Sudan spends millions on Israeli surveillance drones

In 2018 the U.S. imposed sanctions on Israel Ziv, due to his role in the civil war in South Sudan. The U.S. banned the export of weapons and defense services to South Sudan in February 2018 and the U.N (United Nations). Security Council passed an arms embargo against South Sudan in July 2018.[17]U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Former Israeli General for Arms Trade with South Sudan Israeli officials assured the UN that Israel would suspend transfers of lethal equipment to any party in South Sudan. Yet, the Defense Export Control Agency (DECA) at the Israeli Ministry of Defense continued to grant export licenses to Israeli weapons companies to sell lethal weapons through Ziv and Green Horizon – in violation of EU, US, and UN embargoes.[18]Israel Told UN It Was Not Selling Lethal Weapons to South Sudan [19]How Israel is sowing the seeds of war in South Sudan

Arms fairs:

South Sudanese delegation visited the Israeli arms fair “ISDEF” in 2015 and 2019.[20]Security provided for South Sudan Delegation to Arms Fair in Israel

Usage of Israeli Arms

Rifles: A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[21]How Israel is sowing the seeds of a deadly war in South Sudan Israeli arms supplies to South Sudan received significant media attention after the UN Panel of Experts reported that government-sponsored Mathiang Anyoor militia members were using (lawfully supplied) Israeli Galil ACE rifles. These weapons originated in South Sudanese National Security Service (NSS) stockpiles and were deployed by the militia during the initial fighting in Juba in December 2013. The UN Panel of Experts also reported that the NSS had acquired Micro Galil rifles from Ugandan stockpiles in 2014, after the start of hostilities. The sample of weapons documented by Conflict Armament Research in South Sudan includes seven Israeli-made weapons (five per cent of the sample).[22]Conflict Armament Research (2018): Weapon Supplies into South Sudan’s Civil War. London

Wiretapping equipment (Verint Systems) – was used to identify and arrest opponents of the government.[23]Israel Supplies South Sudan Government With Wiretapping Equipment  A former intelligence official told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment acquired has the ability to “intercept and monitor” networks that carry voice and data traffic, potentially allowing NSS to record communications including voice calls and voice messages in real time. A south Sudanese human rights monitor told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment is operated and managed by private Israeli experts who reports to the head of the Internal Security Bureau of the NSS, Lt. Gen. Akol Koor Kuc.[24]“What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service

Violations of Human Rights

Since mid-December 2013, a civil war has been raging in South Sudan between opposing ethnic and political groups — a continuation of the bloody civil war that led to the country’s independence after 22 years. According to reports, since the conflict started in December 2013, 50,000 people were killed, more than 4 million people have fled their homes, with 2.47 million taking refuge in neighboring countries. Close to 200,000 people are living in six UN “protection of civilians” sites across the country. Seven million people needed humanitarian assistance, most of whom faced acute food shortages.[25]World Report 2015: South Sudan Events of 2014 [26]HRW South Sudan Events of 2018 Human rights organizations and the United Nations estimate that 12,000 child soldiers are fighting in South Sudan.[27]What next for South Sudan’s 3,000 freed child soldiers? All parties to the conflict committed serious abuses, including indiscriminate attacks against civilians including aid workers, unlawful killings, beatings, arbitrary detentions, torture, sexual violence, recruitment and use of child soldiers, looting and destruction of civilian property. Some of the abuses constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity. All parties to the conflict restricted access for the United Nations (UN) mission,those providing humanitarian assistance, and ceasefire monitors.[28]HRW South Sudan Events of 2018

Neither side is able to bring the war to an end, and no ethnic group has a clear majority in the country. The Dinka tribe, which is currently in control of the government, is only 35 percent of the population.[29]CIA the World Factbook Some of the opposition fighters are former security forces personnel who defected to the other side, taking their weapons and military training with them, thus making it harder for government forces to defeat them. For these reasons, the government decided on an alternative strategy: mass murder[30]South Sudan marks first anniversary of civil war systematic rape[31]Civilians killed and raped in latest South Sudan violence: U.N., of other ethnic groups, and abuse of citizens identified with the opposition.

Members of all parties committed acts of sexual violence against women and girls during armed attacks on their homes, while they were fleeing attacks or when they went to buy or search for basic necessities such as food and firewood around UN sites. Perpetrators of sexual violence crimes were rarely held accountable.[32]HRW South Sudan Events of 2018

All parties have attacked aid workers, and restricted access to populations in need. At least 12 aid workers were killed in 2018, bringing the toll to over 100 since December 2013.[33]HRW South Sudan Events of 2018

National security officials summoned, questioned, and harassed journalists and editors and censored newspaper articles. In February, the UN published a report identifying 60 incidents including killings, arbitrary arrests and detentions of journalists and editors, closure, suspension or censorship of newspapers and blocking of websites, from the period of July 2016-Dec 2017.[34]HRW South Sudan Events of 2018

In 2019, fighting between the two main warring parties declined following the signing of the “revitalized” peace agreement in September 2018. However, amid delays implementing the peace deal, sporadic fighting continued between the army and rebel groups that were not part of the agreement.[35]HRWSouth Sudan Events of 2019

References
1 South Sudan President Visits Israel for First Time
2 Israeli companies discover South Sudan
3 Israel signs 1st agreement, on water, with S. Sudan
4 South Sudan signs oil deal with Israel
5 Israel Exports to South Sudan
6 How Israel is sowing the seeds of a deadly war in South Sudan
7 Israel Supplies South Sudan Government With Wiretapping Equipment
8 Israel Spy industry helps dictators around the world persecute gays and dissidents
9 “What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service
10 “What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service
11 OCCRP : Sam Mednick : Sprouting Weapons of War
12 US Treasury sanctions three individuals for their roles in the conflict in South Sudan
13 U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Former Israeli General for Arms Trade with South Sudan
14 “What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service
15 South Sudan spends millions on Israel security devices
16 Broke South Sudan spends millions on Israeli surveillance drones
17 U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Former Israeli General for Arms Trade with South Sudan
18 Israel Told UN It Was Not Selling Lethal Weapons to South Sudan
19 How Israel is sowing the seeds of war in South Sudan
20 Security provided for South Sudan Delegation to Arms Fair in Israel
21 How Israel is sowing the seeds of a deadly war in South Sudan
22 Conflict Armament Research (2018): Weapon Supplies into South Sudan’s Civil War. London
23 Israel Supplies South Sudan Government With Wiretapping Equipment
24 “What Crime Was I Paying For?” Abuses by South Sudan’s National Security Service
25 World Report 2015: South Sudan Events of 2014
26 HRW South Sudan Events of 2018
27 What next for South Sudan’s 3,000 freed child soldiers?
28 HRW South Sudan Events of 2018
29 CIA the World Factbook
30 South Sudan marks first anniversary of civil war
31 Civilians killed and raped in latest South Sudan violence: U.N.
32 HRW South Sudan Events of 2018
33 HRW South Sudan Events of 2018
34 HRW South Sudan Events of 2018
35 HRWSouth Sudan Events of 2019